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Second Punic War
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Second Punic War

The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. While the First Punic War had been fought largely over control of Sicily, the Second Punic War involved confrontations in Spain, Italy...
Trojan War
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Trojan War

The Trojan War, fought between Greeks and the defenders of the city of Troy in Anatolia sometime in the late Bronze Age, has grabbed the imagination for millennia. A conflict between Mycenaeans and Hittites may well have occurred, but its...
War in Ancient Times
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

War in Ancient Times

The word 'war' comes to English from the old High German language word Werran (to confuse or to cause confusion) through the Old English Werre (meaning the same), and is a state of open and usually declared armed conflict between...
First Punic War
Definition by Mark Cartwright

First Punic War

The First Punic War was fought between Carthage and Rome between 264 and 241 BCE, largely over control of Sicily. The longest continuous war in history up to that time was fought on the island, at sea, and in north Africa with both sides...
The Art of War
Definition by Mark Cartwright

The Art of War

The Art of War (Sunzi bingfa) is a 5th-century BCE military treatise written by the Chinese strategist Sun-Tzu (aka Sunzi or Sun Wu). Covering all aspects of warfare, it seeks to advise commanders on how to prepare, mobilise, attack, defend...
Genpei War
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Genpei War

The Genpei War (1180-1185 CE), also known as the Taira-Minamoto War, was a conflict in Japan principally between two rival clans: the Minamoto and Taira, for control of the imperial throne. The civil war was punctuated by a typhoon, earthquake...
Third Punic War
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Third Punic War

The Third Punic War was fought between Carthage and Rome between 149 and 146 BCE. Carthage had already lost two wars against Rome, but their assault on their Numidian neighbours gave the Romans the perfect excuse to crush this troublesome...
Detail of the War Scene of the Standard of Ur Showing Prisoners of War
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Detail of the War Scene of the Standard of Ur Showing Prisoners of War

This is a detail of the so-called "War Scene" of the Standard of Ur. This detail is the right end of the top register. Sumerian soldiers wearing flounced skirts lead prisoners of wars. The captives are naked and their bodies have wounds with...
The Hundred Years' War: Consequences & Effects
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Hundred Years' War: Consequences & Effects

The Hundred Years’ War was fought intermittently between England and France from 1337 to 1453 CE and the conflict had many consequences, both immediate and long-lasting. Besides the obvious death and destruction that many of the...
The Propaganda of Octavian and Mark Antony's Civil War
Article by Jesse Sifuentes

The Propaganda of Octavian and Mark Antony's Civil War

Propaganda played an important role in Octavian (l. 63 BCE - 14 CE) and Mark Antony’s (l. 83 – 30 BCE) civil war, and once victorious at the Battle of Actium (31 BCE), Octavian returned home to become the first Roman emperor...