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Visiting the Ancient City of Babylon
Article by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Visiting the Ancient City of Babylon

We had a 4-day national holiday. Meaning what? No clinic and no hospital! I said to myself, “It’s been a long time since I have visited Babylonia.” I drove my car for about 11 hours, continuously. Finally, I was there. I...
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Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Myth of Adapa

The Myth of Adapa (also known as Adapa and the Food of Life) is the Mesopotamian story of the Fall of Man in that it explains why human beings are mortal. The god of wisdom, Ea, creates the first man, Adapa, and endows him with great intelligence...
The Myth of Etana
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Myth of Etana

The Myth of Etana is the story of the Sumerian antediluvian King of Kish who ascends to heaven on an eagle to request the Plant of Birth from the gods so that he might have a son. Etana is named as the first king of Kish in the Sumerian King...
Third Gender Figures in the Ancient Near East
Article by William Brown

Third Gender Figures in the Ancient Near East

In the ancient Near East, there was a social standard by which men were ideally expected to behave. In the 21st century CE, expectations still exist, albeit in different forms. Normative masculinity through ancient Mesopotamia typically concerned...
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Article by Joshua J. Mark

Enheduanna - Poet, Priestess, Empire Builder

Enheduanna (2285-2250 BCE) is the world's first author and was the daughter (either literally or figuratively) of the great empire-builder Sargon of Akkad (2334-2279 BCE). Her name translates from the Akkadian as `high priestess of An', the...
The Ludlul-Bel-Nimeqi - Not Merely a Babylonian Job
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Ludlul-Bel-Nimeqi - Not Merely a Babylonian Job

The Ludlul-Bel-Nimeqi is a Babylonian poem which chronicles the lament of a good man suffering undeservedly. Also known as `The Poem of the Righteous Sufferer', the title translates as "I will praise the Lord of Wisdom". ...
Herodotus on Babylon
Article by Herodotus

Herodotus on Babylon

I:192. As to the resources of the Babylonians how great they are, I shall show by many other proofs and among them also by this: For the support of the great king and his army, apart from the regular tribute the whole land of which he is...
Great Military Commanders from Antiquity
Collection by Mark Cartwright

Great Military Commanders from Antiquity

In antiquity, certain military commanders were so formidable on the battlefield that they were responsible for the rise and fall of civilizations. Epaminondas saw off mighty Sparta and almost single-handedly gave Greek Thebes its one...
Ancient Societies
Collection by Mark Cartwright

Ancient Societies

In this collection of resources, we look at ancient societies and examine who was at the top of the social ladder, who were the climbers and who were at the very bottom. In places like ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome men largely dominated...
Fertile Crescent - Cradle of Civilization
Collection by Mark Cartwright

Fertile Crescent - Cradle of Civilization

The Fertile Crescent is a region stretching from northern Egypt across to the Persian Gulf and was the home to the oldest civilizations in history such as the Sumerians, earning it the common name of the 'Cradle of Civilization'...