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Ancient Mesopotamian Beliefs in the Afterlife
Article by M. Choksi

Ancient Mesopotamian Beliefs in the Afterlife

Unlike the rich corpus of ancient Egyptian funerary texts, no such “guidebooks” from Mesopotamia detail the afterlife and the soul's fate after death. Instead, ancient Mesopotamian views of the afterlife must be pieced together...
Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent
Article by Jan van der Crabben

Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent

The ancient Near East, and the Fertile Crescent in particular, is generally seen as the birthplace of agriculture. In the fourth millennium BCE this area was more temperate than it is today, and it was blessed with fertile soil, two great...
The Nimrud Dogs
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Nimrud Dogs

In 612 BCE the Neo-Assyrian Empire fell to the invading forces of Babylonians, Persians, Medes, and Scythians. The empire had been expanding in every direction since the reign of Adad Nirari II (c. 912-891 BCE) and grew more powerful under...
Roman Household Spirits: Manes, Panes and Lares
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Roman Household Spirits: Manes, Panes and Lares

To the ancient Romans, everything was imbued with a divine spirit (numen, plural: numina) which gave it life. Even supposedly inanimate objects like rocks and trees possessed a numen, a belief which no doubt grew out of the early religious...
The Marduk Prophecy
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Marduk Prophecy

The Marduk Prophecy is an Assyrian document dating to between 713-612 BCE found in a building known as The House of the Exorcist adjacent to a temple in the city of Ashur. It relates the travels of the statue of the Babylonian god Marduk...
Mesopotamian Effects on Israel During the Iron Age
Article by Benjamin T. Laie

Mesopotamian Effects on Israel During the Iron Age

The Iron Age in the traditional Ancient Near Eastern chronology ranges from somewhere around 1200 BCE to 333 BCE. It begins from the era when it was first thought iron came to be used up to the ascendency of Alexander the Great as the major...
A Gift from King Shulgi: A Pair of Gold Earrings
Article by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

A Gift from King Shulgi: A Pair of Gold Earrings

Gold is a treasure, and he who possesses it does all he wishes to in this world, and succeeds in helping souls into paradise. Christopher Columbus.   On June 22, 2005, the Sulaymaniyah Museum of Iraqi Kurdistan purchased a...
Hammurabi's Code: Babylonian Law Set in Stone
Article by writer873

Hammurabi's Code: Babylonian Law Set in Stone

Hammurabi was the first king of the Babylonian Empire, reigning from 1792 B.C. – 1750 B.C. During his time in power, he conquered Sumer and Akkad, amassing those cultures for his territory. He is probably best known for...
The Iraq Museum: A Brightness in the Darkness
Article by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

The Iraq Museum: A Brightness in the Darkness

For whom have I labored? For whom have I journeyed? For whom have I suffered? I have gained absolutely nothing for myself, I have only profited the snake, the ground lion!  The Epic of Gilgamesh, Tablet XI This...
Cuneiform Lexical Lists
Article by William Brown

Cuneiform Lexical Lists

Lexical lists are compilations of cuneiform signs and word readings written on clay tablets throughout Mesopotamia. From the late 4th millennium BCE up to the 1st century CE, scribal communities copied, modified, and passed on these cuneiform...