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Dogs in the Ancient World
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Dogs in the Ancient World

Dogs have been a part of the history of human beings since before the written word. The ancient temple of Gobekli-Tepe in Turkey, dated to at least 12,000 years BCE, has provided archaeologists with evidence of domesticated...
Interview: The Last Days of the Incas (Kim MacQuarrie)
Article by James Blake Wiener

Interview: The Last Days of the Incas (Kim MacQuarrie)

How did a mere 167 Spaniards conquer an empire of 10 million people? The Spanish were outnumbered 200-to-1 yet they were able to seize the Inca capital, Cuzco, and dispose of the Inca ruler within only a year. Kim MacQuarrie’s The Last...
Dogs & Their Collars in the Middle Ages
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Dogs & Their Collars in the Middle Ages

Dogs have played a prominent role in the lives of humans going back thousands of years and, more than any other domesticated animal, this role has remained relatively unchanged. In the present day, dogs serve as guardians, perform tricks...
Aryan
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Aryan

Aryan is a designation originally meaning “civilized”, “noble”, or “free” without reference to any ethnicity. It was first applied as a self-identifying term by a migratory group of people from Central...
Mesopotamia
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia (from the Greek, meaning 'between two rivers’) was an ancient region located in the eastern Mediterranean bounded in the northeast by the Zagros Mountains and in the southeast by the Arabian Plateau, corresponding to...
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Hanging Gardens of Babylon

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were the fabled gardens which adorned the capital of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, built by its greatest king Nebuchadnezzar II (r. 605-562 BCE). One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, they are the only...
Aztec Civilization
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Aztec Civilization

The Aztec Empire flourished between c. 1345 and 1521 CE and, at its greatest extent, covered most of northern Mesoamerica. Aztec warriors were able to dominate their neighbouring states and permit rulers such as Motecuhzoma II to impose Aztec...
Quetzalcoatl
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Quetzalcoatl

Quetzalcóatl (pron. Quet-zal-co-at) was one of the most important gods in ancient Mesoamerica. The god known as the Plumed Serpent is a mix of bird and rattle snake and his name is a combination of the Nahuatl words for the quetzal...
The Ancient City
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

The Ancient City

In the study of the ancient world a City is generally defined as a large populated urban center of commerce and administration with a system of laws and, usually, regulated means of sanitation. This is only one definition, however, and the...
Writing
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Writing

Writing is the physical manifestation of a spoken language. It is thought that human beings developed language c. 35,000 BCE as evidenced by cave paintings from the period of the Cro-Magnon Man (c. 50,000-30,000 BCE) which appear to express...