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Carthaginian Coinage
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Carthaginian Coinage

The coinage of Carthage was first minted from the 5th century BCE. Initially adopting the drachma, the Carthaginians later minted silver shekel coins. Designs were instantly recognisable, as intended, and included famous figures such as Hannibal...
Attalid Dynasty
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Attalid Dynasty

The Attalid Dynasty ruled an empire from their capital at Pergamon during the 3rd and 2nd century BCE. Fighting for their place in the turbulent world following the death of Alexander the Great, the Attalids briefly flourished with Pergamon...
Metapontum
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Metapontum

Metapontum, located on the southern coast of Basilicata, Italy, was an Achaean colony founded in the late 8th century BCE. Thriving on agriculture and trade, the city became one of the most prosperous colonies in Magna Graecia. Today, the...
Melqart
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Melqart

Melqart (also Melkarth or Melicarthus) was an important Phoenician god and patron deity of the city of Tyre. Associated with the monarchy, sea, colonization, and commercial enterprise, both at home and abroad the god is a significant, if...
The Army of Alexander the Great
Article by Donald L. Wasson

The Army of Alexander the Great

No military commander in history has ever won a battle by himself. To be successful he needs the support of a well-trained army who will follow him regardless of the cost whether it be a stunning victory or hopeless defeat. One need only...
Alexander the Great as a God
Article by Donald L. Wasson

Alexander the Great as a God

The age-old concept of the “divine right of kings” allowed that a country’s ruler received his or her power or authority from God. However, few, if any, were delusional enough to actually believe themselves to be a god. ...
The Masaesyli and Massylii of Numidia
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Masaesyli and Massylii of Numidia

The North African Berber kingdom of Numidia (202-40 BCE) was originally inhabited by a tribe (or federation of tribes) known as the Masaesyli, to the west, and a coalition of smaller tribes, known as the Massylii, to the east. The meaning...
Roman Republic
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Roman Republic

In the late 6th century BCE, the small city-state of Rome overthrew the shackles of monarchy and created a republican government that, in theory if not always in practice, represented the wishes of its citizens. From this basis the city would...
Arretium
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Arretium

Arretium (modern Arezzo) was an important Etruscan town located in the extreme north-east of Etruria in central Italy. Flourishing as a trade and manufacturing centre, Arretium managed to overcome its rivalry with Rome and continue as a prosperous...
Gortyn
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Gortyn

Gortyn is located on the Mesara plain of central Crete and was an important settlement throughout antiquity from the Minoan to Hellenistic periods. In Roman times the city went on to gain even more importance as the capital of the Roman province...