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Carthaginian Warfare
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Carthaginian Warfare

Carthaginian warfare has been overshadowed by defeat to Rome in the Punic Wars, but for six centuries before that Carthage was remarkably successful in conquering lucrative territories in North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, and Sicily. By...
Carthage
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Carthage

Carthage was a Phoenician city-state on the coast of North Africa (the site of modern-day Tunis) which, prior the conflict with Rome known as the Punic Wars (264-146 BCE), was the largest, most affluent, and powerful political entity in the...
Carthaginian Army
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Carthaginian Army

The armies of Carthage permitted the city to forge the most powerful empire in the western Mediterranean from the 6th to 3rd centuries BCE. Although by tradition a seafaring nation with a powerful navy, Carthage, by necessity, had to employ...
Saguntum
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Saguntum

Saguntum (modern Sagunto), located near Valencia in Spain, was an Iberian, and then Roman, settlement. The town’s most dramatic moment in history came in the late 3rd century BCE when it was attacked by Hannibal, an act which famously...
Hamilcar Barca
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Hamilcar Barca

Hamilcar Barca (c. 285 – c. 228 BCE) was a Carthaginian general active in the First Punic War (264-241 BCE). He then quashed a rebellion closer to home between 241 and 237 BCE before returning abroad, where he successfully expanded...
Roman Warfare & Battles
Lesson Pack by Marion Wadowski

Roman Warfare & Battles

We have prepared five lesson plans including classroom activities, assignments, homework, and keys as well as: Multiple choice quiz questions in an excel format Glossary of keywords and concepts in an excel format Open questions...
Romans vs. Carthaginians - Text & Labelling
Worksheet/Activity by Marion Wadowski

Romans vs. Carthaginians - Text & Labelling

This activity has been designed to fit a 20-30-minute slot for your class and is suitable for both online and classroom teaching, as well as homeschooling.  Students have to label the illustrations of Roman and Carthaginian soldiers...
The Battle of Zama - The Beginning of Roman Conquest
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Battle of Zama - The Beginning of Roman Conquest

The Battle of Zama (202 BCE) was the final engagement of the Second Punic War (218-202 BCE) at which Hannibal Barca of Carthage (l. 247-183 BCE) was defeated by Scipio Africanus of Rome (l. 236-183 BCE) ending the conflict in Rome’s...
Interview: Empire of the Black Sea by Duane Roller
Article by Patrick Goodman

Interview: Empire of the Black Sea by Duane Roller

Multiple Fulbright Award-winning Duane Roller joins us to talk about his new book, Empire of the Black Sea. The first thorough analysis in English of the dynasty as a whole, Empire of the Black Sea chronicles each ruler of the Mithridatic...
Elephants in Greek & Roman Warfare
Article by Mark Cartwright

Elephants in Greek & Roman Warfare

In the search for ever more impressive and lethal weapons to shock the enemy and bring total victory the armies of ancient Greece, Carthage, and even sometimes Rome turned to the elephant. Huge, exotic, and frightening the life out of an...