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Warfare in Classical Greece
Collection by Mark Cartwright

Warfare in Classical Greece

The ancient Greek city-states were in a constant rivalry for land, resources and power which meant that warfare became an ever-present aspect of life. Athens and Sparta were famous rivals throughout the Classical period but other cities like...
The Greek Phalanx
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Greek Phalanx

One of the most effective and enduring military formations in ancient warfare was that of the Greek phalanx. The age of the phalanx may be traced back to Sumeria in the 25th century BCE, through Egypt, and finally appearing in Greek literature...
The Army of Alexander the Great
Article by Donald L. Wasson

The Army of Alexander the Great

No military commander in history has ever won a battle by himself. To be successful he needs the support of a well-trained army who will follow him regardless of the cost whether it be a stunning victory or hopeless defeat. One need only...
Battle of the Eurymedon, c. 466 BCE
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Battle of the Eurymedon, c. 466 BCE

The Battle of the Eurymedon (c. 466 BCE, also given as the Battle of the Eurymedon River) was a military engagement between the Greeks of the Delian League and the forces of the Achaemenid Empire toward the end...
The Greek Strategy at the Battle of Salamis 480 BCE
Article by Antonis Mistriotis

The Greek Strategy at the Battle of Salamis 480 BCE

The history of the second Persian war as presented in most of the modern literature is solely based on Herodotus’ Histories. However, Herodotus’ narration seems to contain several unrealistic elements which raise doubts about...
Alexander's Siege of Tyre, 332 BCE
Article by Grant

Alexander's Siege of Tyre, 332 BCE

After defeating Darius III at the battle of Issus in November 333 BCE, Alexander marched his army (about 35,000-40,000 strong) into Phoenicia, where he received the capitulation of Byblus and Sidon. Tyrian envoys met with Alexander...
The Battle of Chaeronea in Diodorus Siculus
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Battle of Chaeronea in Diodorus Siculus

Chaeronea is the site of the famous Battle of Chaeronea (338 BCE) Phillip II of Macedon’s decisive defeat of the Greek city-states. At Chaeronea in Boeotia (north of Corinth) Phillip and his allies from Thessaly, Epirus, Aetolia, Northern...
The Battle of Gaugamela, 331 BCE
Article by Grant

The Battle of Gaugamela, 331 BCE

After securing the eastern Mediterranean seaboard and Egypt, Alexander the Great pushed east into Mesopotamia with the intention of bringing Darius to battle. After crossing the Euphrates River unopposed, he marched his army eastward along...
Battle of Hydaspes
Article by Donald L. Wasson

Battle of Hydaspes

For almost a decade, Alexander the Great and his army swept across Western Asia and into Egypt, defeating King Darius III and the Persians at the battles of River Granicus, Issus and Gaugamela. Next, despite the objections of the loyal army...
The Athenian Ephebeia in the Lycurgan Period: 334/3-322/1 BCE
Article by John Lennard Friend

The Athenian Ephebeia in the Lycurgan Period: 334/3-322/1 BCE

This dissertation examines the origin, purpose, and function of the Athenian ephebeia during the Lycurgan period (334/3-322/1 BCE). The ephebeia, a compulsory two-year long state-funded and organized program of military service for eighteen...