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Siege Warfare in Medieval Europe
Article by Mark Cartwright

Siege Warfare in Medieval Europe

Siege tactics were a crucial part of medieval warfare, especially from the 11th century CE when castles became more widespread in Europe and sieges outnumbered pitched battles. Castles and fortified cities offered protection to both the local...
Kingdom of Magadha: Wars and Warfare
Article by Dr Avantika Lal

Kingdom of Magadha: Wars and Warfare

In ancient India from the 6th century BCE onwards, the kingdom of Magadha (6th century BCE to 4th century BCE) made a mark for itself. Located in the eastern part of India in what is today the state of Bihar, it outshone other kingdoms and...
Fortifications in Ancient Chinese Warfare
Article by Mark Cartwright

Fortifications in Ancient Chinese Warfare

While ancient Chinese warfare was often characterised by large armies in pitched battles, siege warfare and the sacking of cities were also regular features. Huge earth walls with towers and encircling ditches or moats became the normal strategy...
Siege Warfare in Ancient India
Article by Dr Avantika Lal

Siege Warfare in Ancient India

Forts and sieges held a key position in ancient Indian warfare. Built on considerations of strategic location, topography, and the natural advantages provided by the site, forts would be heavily supplemented with man-made fortifications...
Chariots in Ancient Indian Warfare
Article by Dr Avantika Lal

Chariots in Ancient Indian Warfare

The chariot was the elite arm of ancient Indian armies in the Vedic (1500 BCE – 1000 BCE) and Epic periods (described by the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, 1000-600 BCE) because of the advantages it conferred and the selection of plain...
Cavalry in Ancient Chinese Warfare
Article by Mark Cartwright

Cavalry in Ancient Chinese Warfare

The use of cavalry in Chinese warfare was a significant development which was largely responsible for the abandonment of chariots, that vehicle being much slower and more cumbersome to manoeuvre in battle conditions. The greater speed and...
Chariots in Ancient Chinese Warfare
Article by Mark Cartwright

Chariots in Ancient Chinese Warfare

The chariot was used in Chinese warfare from around 1250 BCE but enjoyed its heyday between the 8th and 5th century BCE when various states were constantly battling for control of China. Employed as a status symbol, a shock weapon, to pursue...
Archers in Ancient Chinese Warfare
Article by Mark Cartwright

Archers in Ancient Chinese Warfare

The bow was the most common weapon in ancient Chinese warfare and the skill of using it was the most esteemed martial art for millennia. Archers were used as infantry, chariot riders, and cavalry over the centuries, and while the weapon’s...
Elephants In Ancient Indian Warfare
Article by Dr Avantika Lal

Elephants In Ancient Indian Warfare

Elephants were used in the ancient Indian army, irrespective of regions, dynasties, or points in time; their importance was never denied and continued well into the medieval period as well. The ready availability in the subcontinent of the...
Armour in Ancient Chinese Warfare
Article by Mark Cartwright

Armour in Ancient Chinese Warfare

With zinging arrows, powerful crossbow bolts, stabbing swords, and swinging axes all a staple feature of the Chinese battlefield, it is not surprising that soldiers sought to protect themselves as best they could with armour and shields...