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The Phoenician Alphabet & Language
Article by Thamis

The Phoenician Alphabet & Language

Phoenician is a Canaanite language closely related to Hebrew. Very little is known about the Canaanite language, except what can be gathered from the El-Amarna letters written by Canaanite kings to Pharaohs Amenhopis III (1402 - 1364 BCE...
Beer in the Ancient World
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Beer in the Ancient World

The intoxicant known in English as `beer' takes its name from the Latin `bibere' (by way of the German `bier') meaning `to drink' and the Spanish word for beer, cerveza' comes from the Latin word `cerevisia' for `of...
Travel in the Ancient Greek World
Article by Mark Cartwright

Travel in the Ancient Greek World

Travel opportunities within the ancient Greek world largely depended on status and profession; nevertheless, a significant proportion of the population could, and did, travel across the Mediterranean to sell their wares, skills, go on religious...
A Visual Glossary of Greek Pottery
Article by Mark Cartwright

A Visual Glossary of Greek Pottery

[image:1205] Alabastron (pl. alabastra) - a small jar for storing perfumes, named after the material (alabaster) the first examples were made from. They were often carried by a string looped around the neck of the vessel. [image:448]...
Hygieia, the Goddess of Health
Article by Mark Beumer

Hygieia, the Goddess of Health

Modern medicine has its origin in the ancient world.  The oldest civilizations used magic and herbs to cure their sick people, but they also used religion to free them from harm and to protect their health. The medical care of today...
The Battle of Chaeronea in Diodorus Siculus
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Battle of Chaeronea in Diodorus Siculus

Chaeronea is the site of the famous Battle of Chaeronea (338 BCE) Phillip II of Macedon’s decisive defeat of the Greek city-states. At Chaeronea in Boeotia (north of Corinth) Phillip and his allies from Thessaly, Epirus, Aetolia, Northern...
Xenophon's Defense of Socrates
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Xenophon's Defense of Socrates

Xenophon (430-354 BCE) was an early disciple of Socrates and a contemporary of Plato. He is best known as the mercenary general who wrote The Anabasis, which relates his adventures in leading his men out of Persia and back to Greece...
Diodorus Siculus on Fate and Philip of Macedon
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Diodorus Siculus on Fate and Philip of Macedon

Diodorus Siculus, the 1st century BCE historian, took great pride in precision of description but, even so, could not refrain from adding his own personal views and interpretations of historical events and persons. In the following passage...
The Life of Crates of Thebes in Diogenes Laertius
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Life of Crates of Thebes in Diogenes Laertius

Crates of Thebes (c. 360-280 BCE) was one of the most important Cynic philosophers of ancient Greece. He was born to a wealthy family in Thebes but gave away his inheritance after realizing the futility of material possessions and the shallow...
Independent Colonies Emerge into Flourishing Independent City-States
Article by Betcher, Daniel ( Illinois Wesleyan University)

Independent Colonies Emerge into Flourishing Independent City-States

Did Greek city-states create colonies in the ancient world in order to expand their sphere of influence? If the answer is yes, then why did one of these colonies break away from its mother-city in order to better itself? The answer is a complicated...