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Ships of the Gods of Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Ships of the Gods of Ancient Egypt

The Nile River was the source of life for the ancient Egyptians and so figured prominently in their religious beliefs. At night, the Milky Way was considered a heavenly Nile, associated with Hathor, and provider of all good things. The Nile...
The Five Gifts of Hathor: Gratitude in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Five Gifts of Hathor: Gratitude in Ancient Egypt

The central cultural value of ancient Egypt was ma'at – harmony and balance – which maintained the order of the universe and the lives of the people. Keeping balance in one's life encouraged the same in one's family and...
Shabti Dolls: The Workforce in the Afterlife
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Shabti Dolls: The Workforce in the Afterlife

The Egyptians believed the afterlife was a mirror-image of life on earth. When a person died their individual journey did not end but was merely translated from the earthly plane to the eternal. The soul stood in judgement in the Hall of...
Ancient Egyptian Medical Texts
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Medical Texts

Medicine in ancient Egypt was understood as a combination of practical technique and magical incantation and ritual. Although physical injury was usually addressed pragmatically through bandages, splints, and salves, even the broken bones...
The Pyramid Texts: Guide to the Afterlife
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Pyramid Texts: Guide to the Afterlife

The Pyramid Texts are the oldest religious writings in the world and make up the principal funerary literature of ancient Egypt. They comprise the texts which were inscribed on the sarcophogi and walls of the pyramids at Saqqara in the 5th...
The Battle of Kadesh & the Poem of Pentaur
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Battle of Kadesh & the Poem of Pentaur

The Poem of Pentaur is the official Egyptian record (along with The Bulletin) of the military victory of Ramesses II (known as The Great, 1279-1213 BCE) over the Hittite King Muwatalli II (1295-1272 BCE) at the Battle of Kadesh...
The Coffin Texts
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Coffin Texts

The Coffin Texts (c. 2134-2040 BCE) are 1,185 spells, incantations, and other forms of religious writing inscribed on coffins to help the deceased navigate the afterlife. They include the text known as the Book of Two Ways which is the first...
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Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor: An Egyptian Epic

The Tale of The Ship-Wrecked Sailor is a text dated to the Middle Kingdom of Egypt (2040-1782 BCE). According to scholar Miriam Lichtheim: The only preserved papyrus copy of the tale was discovered by Glenischeff [a scholar] in the Imperial...
Conflict Between the Temple and the Crown in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Conflict Between the Temple and the Crown in Ancient Egypt

The gods of ancient Egypt were worshipped as the creators and sustainers of all life. People acknowledged their supremacy and intimacy daily through rituals, amulets, and their labor for the king. Everyone, from farmers to craftsmen to merchants...
Prayer to Thoth for Skill in Writing
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Prayer to Thoth for Skill in Writing

The Prayer to Thoth for Skill in Writing is a literary piece dated to c. 1150 BCE from the latter period of the New Kingdom of Egypt (c. 1570-1069 BCE) in which a young scribe prays for inspiration to Thoth, god of wisdom and writing. The...