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Mummification in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Mummification in Ancient Egypt

The practice of mummifying the dead began in ancient Egypt c. 3500 BCE. The English word mummy comes from the Latin mumia which is derived from the Persian mum meaning 'wax' and refers to an embalmed corpse which was wax-like. The idea of...
The Gifts of Isis: Women's Status in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Gifts of Isis: Women's Status in Ancient Egypt

A story on a papyrus dating from the 2nd century CE relates that the goddess Isis, bestowing gifts on humanity, gave as much power and honor to women as she did to men. This tale reflects the high status women enjoyed in ancient Egypt. Although...
Police in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Police in Ancient Egypt

In any society, members of the community recognize they are required to restrain certain impulses in order to participate in the community. Every civilization has had some form of law which makes clear that the benefits of peaceful coexistence...
The First Labor Strike in History
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The First Labor Strike in History

The most important cultural value in ancient Egypt was harmony; known to the Egyptians as ma'at. Ma'at was the concept of universal, communal, and personal balance which allowed for the world to function as it should according to the will...
Egyptian Mummies at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
Article by Jan van der Crabben

Egyptian Mummies at the Montreal Museum of Fine Arts

The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts (Musée des beaux-arts de Montréal) is currently hosting the North American premiere of the exhibition Egyptian Mummies: Exploring Ancient Lives. Visitors can meet six mummies who lived...
Ancient Egyptian Mortuary Rituals
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Mortuary Rituals

Ever since European archaeologists began excavating in Egypt in the 18th and 19th centuries CE, the ancient culture has been largely associated with death. Even into the mid-20th century CE reputable scholars were still writing on the death-obsessed...
Women's Work in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Women's Work in Ancient Egypt

Women in ancient Egypt had greater rights than in any other civilization of the time. They could own land, initiate divorce, own and operate their own business, become scribes, priests, seers, dentists, and doctors. Although men were dominant...
The Battle of Kadesh & the First Peace Treaty
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Battle of Kadesh & the First Peace Treaty

Ramesses II (The Great, 1279-1213 BCE) ruled Egypt for 67 years and, today, the Egyptian landscape still bears testimony to the prosperity of his reign in the many temples and monuments he had built in honor of his conquests and accomplishments...
Grave Goods in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Grave Goods in Ancient Egypt

The concept of the afterlife changed in different eras of Egypt's very long history, but for the most part, it was imagined as a paradise where one lived eternally. To the Egyptians, their country was the most perfect place which had been...
The Satire of the Trades
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Satire of the Trades

The literature of ancient Egypt is as rich and varied as any other culture. From the inscriptions of the Old Kingdom of Egypt (c. 2613-2181 BCE) through the Love Poems of the New Kingdom (c. 1570 - c. 1069 BCE) the Egyptian scribes produced...