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Death in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Death in Ancient Egypt

To the ancient Egyptians, death was not the end of life but only the beginning of the next phase in an individual's eternal journey. There was no word in ancient Egyptian which corresponds to the concept of "death" as usually...
Magic in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Magic in Ancient Egypt

In ancient Egypt, if a woman were having difficulty conceiving a child, she might spend an evening in a Bes Chamber (also known as an incubation chamber) located within a temple. Bes was the god of childbirth, sexuality, fertility, among...
Clergy, Priests & Priestesses in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Clergy, Priests & Priestesses in Ancient Egypt

The ancient Egyptians understood that their gods had prevailed over the forces of chaos through the creation of the world and relied upon humanity's help to maintain it. The people of Mesopotamia held this same belief but felt they were...
Beer in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Beer in Ancient Egypt

Considering the value the ancient Egyptians placed on enjoying life, it is no surprise that they are known as the first civilization to perfect the art of brewing beer. The Egyptians were so well known as brewers, in fact, that their fame...
The Admonitions of Ipuwer
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Admonitions of Ipuwer

The Admonitions of Ipuwer (also known as The Papyrus Ipuwer and The Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage) is a literary text dated to the Middle Kingdom of Egypt (2040-1782 BCE). The only extant copy of the work, preserved...
The Forty-Two Judges
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Forty-Two Judges

The ancient Egyptians have long been defined as a death-obsessed culture owing to their association with tombs and mummies as depicted in popular media and, of course, the famous discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamun by Howard Carter in 1922...
Female Physicians in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Female Physicians in Ancient Egypt

A famous story from Greece relates how a young woman named Agnodice wished to become a doctor in Athens but found this forbidden. In fact, a woman practicing medicine in Athens in the 4th century BCE faced the death penalty. Refusing to give...
The First Labor Strike in History
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The First Labor Strike in History

The most important cultural value in ancient Egypt was harmony; known to the Egyptians as ma’at. Ma’at was the concept of universal, communal, and personal balance which allowed for the world to function as it should according...
The Soul in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Soul in Ancient Egypt

At the beginning of time, the god Atum stood on the primordial mound in the midst of the waters of chaos and created the world. The power which enabled this act was heka (magic) personified in the god Heka, the invisible force behind the...
Shabti Dolls: The Workforce in the Afterlife
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Shabti Dolls: The Workforce in the Afterlife

The Egyptians believed the afterlife was a mirror-image of life on earth. When a person died their individual journey did not end but was merely translated from the earthly plane to the eternal. The soul stood in judgement in the Hall of...