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Shabti Dolls: The Workforce in the Afterlife
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Shabti Dolls: The Workforce in the Afterlife

The Egyptians believed the afterlife was a mirror-image of life on earth. When a person died their individual journey did not end but was merely translated from the earthly plane to the eternal. The soul stood in judgement in the Hall of...
Trade in the Roman World
Article by Mark Cartwright

Trade in the Roman World

Regional, inter-regional and international trade was a common feature of the Roman world. A mix of state control and a free market approach ensured goods produced in one location could be exported far and wide. Cereals, wine and olive oil...
The Art of the Amarna Period
Article by Elsie McLaughlin

The Art of the Amarna Period

Of all the pharaohs who ruled ancient Egypt, there is one in particular that stands out from the rest. Over the course of his 17-year reign (1353-1336 BCE), Akhenaten spearheaded a cultural, religious, and artistic revolution that rattled...
Thutmose III at The Battle of Megiddo
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Thutmose III at The Battle of Megiddo

The ancient site of Megiddo was the scene of a number of battles in antiquity and is best known as the source of the word armageddon, the Greek rendering of the Hebrew Har-Megiddo ('Mount of Megiddo') from the biblical Book of Revelation...
The Tales of Prince Setna
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Tales of Prince Setna

Among the most engaging and influential works from Egyptian literature are the stories in the cycle known as Setna I and Setna II or The Tales of Prince Setna. These are fictional works from the Late Period of Ancient Egypt (525-332 BCE...
The Mystery of the Great Sphinx
Article by Brian Haughton

The Mystery of the Great Sphinx

Buried for most of its life in the desert sand, an air of mystery has always surrounded the Great Sphinx, causing speculation about its age and purpose, method of construction, concealed chambers, role in prophecy, and relationship to the...
Cleopatra & Antony
Article by Brian Haughton

Cleopatra & Antony

Regarded by the Romans as “fatale monstrum”- a fatal omen, Cleopatra is one of the ancient world's most popular, though elusive figures. The Egyptian Queen has been immortalized by numerous writers and film-makers, most popularly...
The Battle of Kadesh & the First Peace Treaty
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Battle of Kadesh & the First Peace Treaty

Ramesses II (The Great, 1279-1213 BCE) ruled Egypt for 67 years and, today, the Egyptian landscape still bears testimony to the prosperity of his reign in the many temples and monuments he had built in honor of his conquests and accomplishments...
The Extent of the Roman Empire
Article by Donald L. Wasson

The Extent of the Roman Empire

Time has seen the rise and fall of a number of great empires - the Babylonian, the Assyrian, the Egyptian, and lastly, the Persian.  Regardless of the size or skill of their army or the capabilities of their leaders, all of these empires...
The Pyramid Texts: Guide to the Afterlife
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Pyramid Texts: Guide to the Afterlife

The Pyramid Texts are the oldest religious writings in the world and make up the principal funerary literature of ancient Egypt. They comprise the texts which were inscribed on the sarcophogi and walls of the pyramids at Saqqara in the 5th...