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The Report of Wenamun: Text & Commentary
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Report of Wenamun: Text & Commentary

The literature of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt (2040-1782 BCE) is justly famous as some of the best the culture ever produced. Great works like The Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor and The Tale of Sinuhe stand among the great literary masterpieces...
The Report of Wenamun & the Perils of Living in the Past
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Report of Wenamun & the Perils of Living in the Past

The Report of Wenamun (also known as The Tale of Wenamun or The Report of Wenamon) is an Egyptian literary work dated to c. 1090-1075 BCE toward the end of the New Kingdom (c.1570 - c. 1069 BCE). The piece was originally interpreted as an...
The Battle of Pelusium: A Victory Decided by Cats
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Battle of Pelusium: A Victory Decided by Cats

The ancient Egyptians had a great reverence for life in all its forms. Life had been given by the gods and reverence for it extended beyond human beings to all living things. Although the Egyptians did occasionally eat meat, and their royalty...
The Step Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Step Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara

The pyramids are the most famous monuments of ancient Egypt and still fascinate people in the present day. These enormous tributes to the memory of the Egyptian kings have become synonymous with the country even though other cultures (such...
The Tale of Sinuhe
Article by Dylan Campbell

The Tale of Sinuhe

The Middle Kingdom of ancient Egypt (2000 BCE – 1700 BCE) saw the start of more formal writing which included religious scripts, administrative notes, and more in-depth fictional writing. One of the most iconic pieces of writing to...
The Admonitions of Ipuwer
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Admonitions of Ipuwer

The Admonitions of Ipuwer (also known as The Papyrus Ipuwer and The Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage) is a literary text dated to the Middle Kingdom of Egypt (2040-1782 BCE). The only extant copy of the work, preserved...
Ancient Egyptian Taxes & the Cattle Count
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Taxes & the Cattle Count

The gods of ancient Egypt freely gave their bounty to the people who worked the land, but this did not exempt those farmers from paying taxes on that bounty to the government. Egypt was a cashless society until the Persian Period (c. 525...
Setna II: A Detailed Summary & Commentary
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Setna II: A Detailed Summary & Commentary

The story known as Setna II (also Setna Khaemaus and Si-Osire) is a work of ancient Egyptian literature from Roman Egypt (30 BCE - 646 CE) written in demotic script. It is part of a cycle of stories known as the Tales of Prince Setna featuring...
Slavery in the Roman World
Article by Mark Cartwright

Slavery in the Roman World

Slavery was an ever-present feature of the Roman world. Slaves served in households, agriculture, mines, the military, manufacturing workshops, construction and a wide range of services within the city. As many as 1 in 3 of the population...
Ancient Egyptian Mortuary Rituals
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Mortuary Rituals

Ever since European archaeologists began excavating in Egypt in the 18th and 19th centuries CE, the ancient culture has been largely associated with death. Even into the mid-20th century CE reputable scholars were still writing on the death-obsessed...