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Script
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Script

Script is any particular system of writing or the written means of human communication. In the West, writing begins in Sumeria over 4,000 years ago and the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh is a stunning example of what the written word can produce...
Hatti
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Hatti

The Hatti were an aboriginal people in central Anatolia (present-day Turkey) who first appeared in the area around the River Kizil Irmak. The prevailing understanding is that they were native to the land although it has been suggested...
The Oriental Empires
Image by PCL Map Collection

The Oriental Empires

Map showing the Median, Lydian, Chaldean, and Egyptian empires around 600 BC.
Trade in the Roman Empire - Web Quest & Map Skills
Worksheet/Activity by Marion Wadowski

Trade in the Roman Empire - Web Quest & Map Skills

This activity has been designed to fit a 20-30-minute slot for your class and is suitable for both online and classroom teaching. Students have to do a web quest in order to complete a map. It is part of our Roman Economy and Trade...
Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Daily Life in Ancient Egypt

The popular view of life in ancient Egypt is often that it was a death-obsessed culture in which powerful pharaohs forced the people to labor at constructing pyramids and temples and, at an unspecified time, enslaved the Hebrews for this...
Trade in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Trade in Ancient Egypt

Trade has always been a vital aspect of any civilization whether at the local or international level. However many goods one has, whether as an individual, a community, or a country, there will always be something one lacks and will need...
Women in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Women in Ancient Egypt

One of the central values of ancient Egyptian civilization, arguably the central value, was ma'at - the concept of harmony and balance in all aspects of one's life. This ideal was the most important duty observed by the pharaoh who...
The Economy of Ptolemaic Egypt
Article by Arienne King

The Economy of Ptolemaic Egypt

Ptolemaic Egypt rapidly established itself as an economic powerhouse of the ancient world at the end of the 4th century BCE. The wealth of Egypt was owed in large part to the unrivalled fertility of the Nile, which served as the breadbasket...
Interrelations of Kerma and Pharaonic Egypt
Article by Paul Joseph De Mola

Interrelations of Kerma and Pharaonic Egypt

The vacillating nature of Ancient Egypt’s associations with the Kingdom of Kerma may be described as one of expansion and contraction; a virtual tug-of-war between rival cultures. Structural changes in Egypt’s administration led...
Love, Sex, and Marriage in Ancient Egypt
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Love, Sex, and Marriage in Ancient Egypt

Although marriages in ancient Egypt were arranged for communal stability and personal advancement, there is ample evidence that romantic love was as important to the people as it is to those in the present day. Romantic love was a popular...