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The Westcar Papyrus
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

The Westcar Papyrus

The ancient Egyptians enjoyed storytelling as one of their favorite pastimes. Inscriptions and images, as well as the number of stories produced, give evidence of a long history of the art of the story in Egypt dealing with subjects ranging...
Wars of the Diadochi
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Wars of the Diadochi

On June 10, 323 BCE Alexander the Great died in Babylon.  Although historians have debated the exact cause most agree that the empire he built was left without adequate leadership for there was no clear successor or heir. The military...
Ergamenes
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ergamenes

King Ergamenes (also known as King Arkamani I, r. 295-275 BCE) was the greatest king of the city of Meroe, Kingdom of Kush (located in modern-day Sudan) who broke free from Egyptian dominance to help direct a wholly distinct culture. The...
Khaemweset
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Khaemweset

Khaemweset (also given as Khaemwaset, Khaemwise, Khaemuas, Setem Khaemwaset, c. 1281-c.1225 BCE) was the fourth son of Ramesses II (1279-1213 BCE) and his queen Isetnefret. He is the best known of Ramesses II's many children after the pharaoh...
Rosetta Stone
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Rosetta Stone

The Rosetta Stone is an incomplete grey and pink granodiorite stela dating from 196 BCE which presents a priestly decree concerning King Ptolemy V of Egypt. The text is in three different versions: Hieroglyphic, Demotic and Greek, a fact...
Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator
Definition by Tom Cox

Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator

Ptolemy XIII Theos Philopator (The Father-loving God, born 62/61 BCE, died 47 BCE) was pharaoh of Egypt from 51 BCE until his death. His reign began as co-ruler with his sister, the famous Cleopatra VII, following the wishes of their father...
Mitanni
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Mitanni

The Kingdom of Mittani, known to the people of the land, and the Assyrians, as Hanigalbat and to the Egyptians as Naharin and Metani, once stretched from present-day northern Iraq, down through Syria and into Turkey and was considered a great...
Alexander Helios
Definition by Arienne King

Alexander Helios

Alexander Helios (40 BCE – c. late 1st century BCE) was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, the second oldest son of Cleopatra VII (69 BCE – 30 BCE) and the twin brother of Cleopatra Selene II (40 BCE – 5 BCE). He spent...
Qebhet
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Qebhet

Qebhet (also known as Kebehwet, Kabechet or Kebechet) is a benevolent goddess of ancient Egypt. She is the daughter of the god of death, Anubis, granddaughter of the goddess Nephthys and god Osiris. She is the personification of cool...
Berenice II Euergetis
Definition by Branko van Oppen

Berenice II Euergetis

Berenice II Euergetis (c. 267-221 BCE) was a pre-eminent Hellenistic queen, who ruled together with her husband Ptolemy III (r. 246-221 BCE), when the Ptolemaic kingdom was at the height of its power, dominating most of the eastern Mediterranean...