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Hagia Sophia Panorama
Image by Mark Cartwright

Hagia Sophia Panorama

The former cathedral and mosque Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (formerly Constantinople). Although some historians disagree (claiming Constantine laid the foundation), Constantius II is credited with building the first of three Hagia Sophias, the...
Cross-section of the Theodosian Walls
Image by Giz19

Cross-section of the Theodosian Walls

A diagram showing a cross-section of the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople, completed c. 413 CE.
Tower, Theodosian Walls
Image by Carole Raddato

Tower, Theodosian Walls

A tower and section of the Theodosian Walls of Constantinople, completed c. 413 CE.
Columns of Basilica Cistern, Istanbul
Image by Hagia Sophia Research Team

Columns of Basilica Cistern, Istanbul

Located across the Hagia Sophia Museum, Yerebatan Sarayi is also known as the Basilica Cistern because of a basilica that was once located nearby as a cultural centre. It is the largest surviving underground cistern of Istanbul. Fatih Cistern...
Mehmed II
Image by Gentile Bellini

Mehmed II

A 15th century CE portrait by G. Bellini of Mehmed II (r. 1451-1481 CE), Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and conqueror of Constantinople in 1453 CE.
Painting of Hagia Sophia
Image by Mohawk Games

Painting of Hagia Sophia

An artist's depiction of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, as it may have appeared in 537 CE. From the game Old World.
Roman Emperor at the Hippodrome
Image by Radomil talk

Roman Emperor at the Hippodrome

A relief scene showing a Roman emperor (probably Theodosius I) with his entourage in the royal box at the Hippodrome of Constantinople. From the 4th century CE base of the column of the obelisk of Thutmose III which once stood in centre of...
Byzantine Pastoral Mosaic
Image by Hagia Sophia Research Team

Byzantine Pastoral Mosaic

Detail from the pastoral compositions in the Great Palace mosaics. The Great Palace Mosaic Museum was inaugurated in 1987 CE. The mosaics in the museum mostly depict animals and humans in nature, mythological, pastoral motifs and hunting...
Spread of Christianity Map (up to 600 CE)
Image by Karyna Mykytiuk

Spread of Christianity Map (up to 600 CE)

Map showing the spread of Christianity, showing both strongly Christianized areas before 325 CE and generally Christianized areas until 600 CE. The map also shows major Christian centers and the cities in which Christian councils were held.
Hagia Sophia  537 CE
3D Image by R. van den Berg

Hagia Sophia 537 CE

Reconstruction of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople at its inauguration, December 27th 537 CE. To create this model, some artistic liberty was required. However, there is some documentation on which parts of the building were added or removed...