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Fritigern
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Fritigern

Fritigern (also Fritigernus, died c. 380 CE) was a Visigothic king best known as the victor of the decisive Battle of Adrianople in 378 CE, which decimated the Roman army and haunted Roman military commanders for decades afterwards. He was...
Gaiseric
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Gaiseric

Gaiseric (r. 428-478 CE, also known as Genseric and Geiseric) was the greatest king of the Vandals who remained undefeated from the time he took the throne until his death. He was probably born in 389 CE near Lake Balaton (present day Hungary...
Marcus Claudius Marcellus
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Marcus Claudius Marcellus

Marcus Claudius Marcellus (c. 270-208 BCE) was a five-time consul and, earning the nickname the 'Sword of Rome', he was one of the city’s greatest military commanders. Active in both the First and Second Punic Wars, he also...
Roman Daily Life
Article by Donald L. Wasson

Roman Daily Life

From the early days of the Roman Republic through the volatile reigns of such ignoble emperors as Caligula, Nero, and Commodus, the Roman Empire continued to expand, stretching its borders to encompass the entire Mediterranean Sea as well...
Roman Household Spirits: Manes, Panes and Lares
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Roman Household Spirits: Manes, Panes and Lares

To the ancient Romans, everything was imbued with a divine spirit (numen, plural: numina) which gave it life. Even supposedly inanimate objects like rocks and trees possessed a numen, a belief which no doubt grew out of the early religious...
A Visitor's Guide to Herculaneum
Article by Carole Raddato

A Visitor's Guide to Herculaneum

In the first part of our new travel series devoted to the archaeological sites around the Bay of Naples, we shared some hints and tips as to how you can best prepare for your self-guided tour of Pompeii. In this second part, we look...
Castor and Pollux
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Castor and Pollux

Castor and Pollux (the Dioscuri) are figures from Greek and Roman mythology considered the twin sons of Zeus or Jupiter. Semi-divine figures, they were credited with the role of saving those in trouble at sea or in grave danger in war...
Christianity
Definition by John S. Knox

Christianity

Christianity is a monotheistic, deontological, grass-roots, Jewish sectarian movement that focuses upon the life, teachings, and mission of Jesus of Nazareth (also known as Jesus the Christ). It began in Jerusalem in Judea in the...
Cyrene
Definition by Cristian Violatti

Cyrene

Cyrene was an ancient Greek city on the North African coast near present-day Shahhat, a town located in north-eastern Libya. The precise location of the ancient city was thirteen kilometres from the coast. Cyrene is listed by UNESCO as a...
Gortyn
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Gortyn

Gortyn is located on the Mesara plain of central Crete and was an important settlement throughout antiquity from the Minoan to Hellenistic periods. In Roman times the city went on to gain even more importance as the capital of the Roman province...