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Cilicia
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Cilicia

Cilicia is the ancient Roman name for the southeastern region of Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey). It is referenced in the biblical books of Acts and Galatians, was the birthplace of Saint Paul, and the site of his early evangelical missions...
Cilicia Campestris
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Cilicia Campestris

Cilicia Campestris was one of the six districts of the Roman province of Cilicia organized by Pompey the Great (l. c. 106-48 BCE) in 64 BCE. The name translates roughly into “Cilicia of the Plains” and corresponds to the earlier...
Aytap
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Aytap

Aytap is the modern name for the ancient city of Iotapa (sometimes given as Iotape and Iotape Philadelphos) in Cilicia. The city’s ruins are located in southern Turkey near modern day Alanya (ancient Coracesium). The city was founded...
Hamaxia
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Hamaxia

Hamaxia (now known as Sinek Kalesi or Sinekkalesi, near the modern Alanya) was a city in western Cilicia in southern Turkey known for its lush landscape, cedar forests, and thriving timber export business. It was located on a high hill near...
Side
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Side

Side (pronounced see-day) was a city on the southern coast of Cilicia (modern-day Turkey) first settled in the 7th century BCE by immigrants from Cyme, an Aeolian municipality to the north near the kingdom of Lydia. Its name means 'pomegranate'...
Tarsus
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Tarsus

Tarsus was a city in ancient Cilicia located in the modern-day province of Mersin, Turkey. It is one of the oldest continually inhabited urban centers in the world, dating back to the Neolithic Period. It was built close by the Cydnus River...
Antiochia ad Cragum
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Antiochia ad Cragum

Antiochia ad Cragum (“Antioch on the Cliffs” or “Antioch at Cragus”) was a Hellenistic Roman city located in Cilicia Trachea (“Rough Cilicia”, also known as Cilicia Aspera and Cilicia Secunda) on the southern...
Pirates in the Ancient Mediterranean
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Pirates in the Ancient Mediterranean

Piracy, defined as the act of attacking and robbing a ship or port by sea, had a long history in the ancient Mediterranean stretching from the time of the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten (r. 1353-1336 BCE) and throughout the Middle Ages (c. 476-1500...
Paul the Apostle
Definition by Rebecca Denova

Paul the Apostle

Paul was a follower of Jesus Christ who famously converted to Christianity on the road to Damascus after persecuting the very followers of the community that he joined. However, as we will see, Paul is better described as one of the founders...
Pirates of the Mediterranean
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Pirates of the Mediterranean

The pirates of the ancient Mediterranean were not, for the most part, the outsiders who knew no country’s allegiance and were the enemies of civilization as they are frequently depicted in novels and other media. They were often employed...