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Six Great Heresies of the Middle Ages
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Six Great Heresies of the Middle Ages

The medieval Church established its monopoly over the spiritual life of Europeans in the Early Middle Ages (c. 476-1000 CE) and consolidated that power throughout the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 CE) and Late Middle Ages (1300-1500 CE). Along...
Monotheism in the Ancient World
Article by Rebecca Denova

Monotheism in the Ancient World

Monotheism is simply defined as the belief in one god and is usually positioned as the polar opposite of polytheism, the belief in many gods. However, the word monotheism is a relatively modern one that was coined in the mid-17th century...
Historical Accuracy in the Film Agora
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Historical Accuracy in the Film Agora

In 2009, film director Alejandro Amenabar brought the story of Hypatia of Alexandria (c. 370-415 CE) to the screen through the feature film Agora. Prior to the film’s release, and more so following, Christian writers criticized the...
The Daily Life of Medieval Monks
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Daily Life of Medieval Monks

Life for monks in a medieval monastery, just like in any profession or calling, had its pros and cons. While they were expected to live simply with few possessions, attend services at all hours of the day and night, and perhaps even take...
Twelve Famous Women of the Middle Ages
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Twelve Famous Women of the Middle Ages

Women in the Middle Ages were frequently characterized as second-class citizens by the Church and the patriarchal aristocracy. Women’s status was somewhat elevated in the High and Late Middle Ages when the cult of the Virgin Mary, combined...
Old Testament Pseudepigrapha
Article by William Brown

Old Testament Pseudepigrapha

The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha are the non-canonical writings of Judaism and Christianity ranging from the 5th century BCE to the 9th century CE. Pseudepigrapha comes from a Greek noun denoting writings with a false superscription or name...
The Monastic Movement: Origins & Purposes
Article by John S. Knox

The Monastic Movement: Origins & Purposes

In 313 CE, Constantine the Great (272 – 337 CE) ended the sporadic-yet-terrifying Christian persecutions under the Roman Empire with his “Edict of Milan,” and brought the Christian church under imperial protection. Not surprisingly...
Historical Problems in the Trial(s) & Crucifixion in the Gospels
Article by Rebecca Denova

Historical Problems in the Trial(s) & Crucifixion in the Gospels

The story of the trial and crucifixion of Jesus Christ is reenacted every year by Christians all over the world in the Easter liturgy. The story has become an essential article of faith and is rarely questioned by New Testament...
Byzantine Icons
Article by Mark Cartwright

Byzantine Icons

Icons, that is images of holy persons, were an important part of the Byzantine Christian Church from the 3rd century CE onwards. Venerated in churches, public places, and private homes, they were often believed to have protective properties...
The Book of Jonah
Article by Benjamin T. Laie

The Book of Jonah

The book of Jonah is the fifth book in the Christian canons and the Jewish Tanakh. It is one of 'Trei Asar' (The Twelve) prophets  in the tanakh, and in Christian tradition as 'oi dodeka prophetai' or 'ton dodekapropheton'...