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The Mandate of Heaven and The Yellow Turban Rebellion
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Mandate of Heaven and The Yellow Turban Rebellion

Throughout history, in order for a government to be respected and obeyed, it must possess some form of legitimacy recognized by the governed. Governmental systems have relied on a number of models for legitimacy, among them the dynastic form...
The Early Three Kingdoms Period
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Early Three Kingdoms Period

The Early Three Kingdoms Period in ancient China, from 184 CE to 190 CE for the purposes of this article, was one of the most turbulent in China's history. With an ailing Han government unable to control its empire, brutal localised wars...
Achievements of the Han Dynasty
Article by Mark Cartwright

Achievements of the Han Dynasty

The achievements of the Han dynasty (206 BCE - 220 CE), often regarded by scholars and the ancient Chinese themselves as the golden era of Chinese culture, would have lasting effects on all who followed, particularly in the areas of government...
Fortifications in Ancient Chinese Warfare
Article by Mark Cartwright

Fortifications in Ancient Chinese Warfare

While ancient Chinese warfare was often characterised by large armies in pitched battles, siege warfare and the sacking of cities were also regular features. Huge earth walls with towers and encircling ditches or moats became the normal strategy...
Twelve Menacing & Protective Mythological Figures
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Twelve Menacing & Protective Mythological Figures

The term mythology comes from the Greek words mythos (“story of the people”) and logos (“word”) and so is defined as the spoken (later written) story of a culture. Modern scholars have divided myths into different...
The Art of the Tang Dynasty
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Art of the Tang Dynasty

The art of the Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE) began to explore new possibilities in materials and styles with landscape painting and ceramics, in particular, coming to the fore. New techniques, a wider range of colours and an increase in connoisseurship...
Similarities Between Eastern & Western Philosophy
Article by Emily Mark

Similarities Between Eastern & Western Philosophy

Since the 'discovery' of eastern philosophy by western explorers and scholars in the 18th and 19th centuries CE, there has been an arbitrary division maintained, especially in colleges and universities, between 'western philosophy' and 'eastern...
Crossbows in Ancient Chinese Warfare
Article by Mark Cartwright

Crossbows in Ancient Chinese Warfare

The crossbow was introduced into Chinese warfare during the Warring States period (481-221 BCE). Developing over the centuries into a more powerful and accurate weapon, the crossbow also came in versions light enough to be fired with one...
Chinese Lacquerware
Article by Mark Cartwright

Chinese Lacquerware

Lacquer was a popular form of decoration and protective covering in ancient China. It was used to colour and beautify screens, furniture, bowls, cups, sculpture, musical instruments, and coffins, where it could be carved, incised, and inlaid...
War of the Eight Princes
Article by Joshua J. Mark

War of the Eight Princes

The War of the Eight Princes (291-306 CE) is the conflict which weakened and finally ended the Western Jin Dynasty (266-316 CE) in China and resulted in more far-reaching consequences throughout the country. The power of the Sima family was...