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Ghosts in the Ancient World
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ghosts in the Ancient World

To the people of the ancient world, there was no doubt that the soul of a human being survived bodily death. Whatever an individual's personal views were on the subject, culturally they were brought up with the understanding that the dead...
Ancient Chinese Philosophy
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Chinese Philosophy

The term Ancient Chinese Philosophy is generally understood to refer to the belief systems developed by various philosophers during the era known as the Hundred Schools of Thought (also The Contention of the Hundred Schools of Thought) when...
Battle of Gaixia
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Battle of Gaixia

The Battle of Gaixia (202 BCE, also known as Kai-Hsia) was the decisive engagement of the Chu-Han Contention (206-202 BCE) at which Liu Bang (l. c. 256-195 BCE), from the State of Han, defeated Xiang Yu (l. 232-202 BCE) of the State of Chu...
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang
Definition by Emily Mark

Emperor Xuanzong of Tang

Xuanzong (birth name, Li Longji, 685-762 CE, r. 712-756 CE) was the 7th emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China, whose domestic and foreign policies established the Tang Dynasty as the Golden Age in Chinese history. Many of the most important...
Literature
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Literature

Literature (from the Latin Littera meaning 'letters' and referring to an acquaintance with the written word) is the written work of a specific culture, sub-culture, religion, philosophy or the study of such written work which may appear in...
Burial
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Burial

Burial of the dead is the act of placing the corpse of a dead person in a tomb constructed for that purpose or in a grave dug into the earth. In cultures such as Mesopotamia, tombs and graves were cut into the ground in the expectation...
Bai Juyi
Definition by Emily Mark

Bai Juyi

Bai Juyi (772-846 CE) was one of the greatest poets of the Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE) along with Li Po (701-762 CE) and Du Fu (712-770 CE). He was a government official who got in trouble with authorities a number of times for not following...
Ancient Chinese Calligraphy
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Ancient Chinese Calligraphy

Calligraphy established itself as the most important ancient Chinese art form alongside painting, first coming to the fore during the Han dynasty (206 BCE - 220 CE). All educated men and some court women were expected to be proficient at...
Ghosts in Ancient China
Article by Emily Mark

Ghosts in Ancient China

Ghost stories were the earliest form of literature in ancient China. They were almost certainly part of a very old oral tradition before writing developed during the Shang Dynasty (1600 - 1046 BCE) and they continue to be popular in China...
The Civil Service Examinations of Imperial China
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Civil Service Examinations of Imperial China

The civil service examinations of Imperial China allowed the state to find the best candidates to staff the vast bureaucracy that governed China from the Han Dynasty onwards (206 BCE - 220 CE). The exams were a means for a young male of any...