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Foot-Binding
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Foot-Binding

Foot-binding was a practice first carried out on young girls in Tang Dynasty China to restrict their normal growth and make their feet as small as possible. Considered an attractive quality, the effects of the process were painful and permanent...
Ancient Chinese Art
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Ancient Chinese Art

Ancient China covered a vast and ever-changing geopolitical landscape, and the art it produced over three millennia is, unsurprisingly, just as varied. Still, despite continuous indigenous technical developments, changes in materials and...
Religion in Ancient China
Article by Emily Mark

Religion in Ancient China

Religious practices in ancient China go back over 7,000 years. Long before the philosophical and spiritual teachings of Confucius and Lao-Tzu developed or before the teachings of the Buddha came to China, the people worshipped personifications...
Shang Dynasty
Definition by Emily Mark

Shang Dynasty

The Shang Dynasty (c.1600-1046 BCE) was the second dynasty of China which succeeded the Xia Dynasty (c. 2700-1600 BCE) after the overthrow of the Xia tyrant Jie by the Shang leader, Tang. Since many historians question whether the Xia Dynasty...
Han Dynasty
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Han Dynasty

The Han Dynasty (202 BCE - 220 CE) was the second dynasty of Imperial China (the era of centralized, dynastic government, 221 BCE - 1912 CE) which established the paradigm for all succeeding dynasties up through 1912 CE. It succeeded the...
Emperor Taizong of Tang
Definition by Emily Mark

Emperor Taizong of Tang

Taizong (birth name, Li-Shimin, 598-649 CE, r. 626-649 CE) was the second emperor of the Tang Dynasty and is considered one of the greatest rulers in Chinese history for his reforms of the government and the laws, his religious tolerance...
Ancient Chinese Architecture
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Ancient Chinese Architecture

Walled compounds, raised pavilions, wooden columns and panelling, yellow glazed roof tiles,  landscaped gardens, and a careful application of town planning and use of space are all notable features of the architecture of ancient...
Xia Dynasty
Definition by Emily Mark

Xia Dynasty

The Xia Dynasty (c. 2070-1600 BCE) was the first government to emerge in ancient China and became the first to adhere to the policy of dynastic succession; thus making it the first dynasty of China. It was regarded as a mythical construct...
Shi Huangdi
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Shi Huangdi

Shi Huangdi (l.259-210 BCE/r.221-210 BCE, also known as Qin Shi Huang, Qin Shih Huandi, Shi Huangti or Shih Huan-ti) was the first emperor of a unified China. Shi Huangdi means `First Emperor' and is a title, not a proper name. The Qin...
Most Popular Gods & Goddesses of Ancient China
Article by Emily Mark

Most Popular Gods & Goddesses of Ancient China

There were over 200 gods and goddesses worshipped throughout ancient China, but if one were to count every deity or spirit, the number would be over 1,000. Each town, village, city, field, farm, and sometimes even separate plot in a graveyard...