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Ancient China
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient China

Ancient China produced what has become the oldest extant culture in the world. The name 'China' comes from the Sanskrit Cina (derived from the name of the Chinese Qin Dynasty, pronounced 'Chin') which was translated as 'Cin'...
Great Wall of China
Definition by Emily Mark

Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China is a barrier fortification in northern China running west-to-east 13,171 miles (21,196 km) from the Jiayuguan Pass (in the west) to the Hushan Mountains in Liaoning Province in the east, ending at the Bohai Gulf. It...
Ming Dynasty
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Ming Dynasty

The Ming dynasty ruled China from 1368 to 1644 CE, replacing the Mongol Yuan dynasty which had been in place since the 13th century CE. Despite challenges from abroad and within, the dynasty would oversee an unprecedented growth in China’s...
Song Dynasty
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Song Dynasty

The Song (aka Sung) dynasty ruled China from 960 to 1279 CE with the reign split into two periods: the Northern Song (960-1125 CE) and Southern Song (1125-1279 CE). The Northern Song ruled a largely united China from their capital at Kaifeng...
Wu Zetian
Definition by Emily Mark

Wu Zetian

Empress Wu Zetian (also known as Empress Consort Wu, Wu Hou, Wu Mei Niang, Mei-Niang, and Wu Zhao, 624-705 CE, r. 690-704 CE) was the only female emperor in the history of China. She reigned during the Tang Dynasty (618-907 CE) and was one...
Most Popular Gods & Goddesses of Ancient China
Article by Emily Mark

Most Popular Gods & Goddesses of Ancient China

There were over 200 gods and goddesses worshipped throughout ancient China, but if one were to count every deity or spirit, the number would be over 1,000. Each town, village, city, field, farm, and sometimes even separate plot in a graveyard...
Ancient Chinese Warfare
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Ancient Chinese Warfare

In ancient China warfare was a means for one region to gain ascendancy over another, for the state to expand and protect its frontiers, and for usurpers to replace an existing dynasty of rulers. With armies consisting of tens of thousands...
Zhou Dynasty
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Zhou Dynasty

The Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 BCE) was among the most culturally significant of the early Chinese dynasties and the longest lasting of any in China’s history. It is divided into two periods: Western Zhou (1046-771 BCE) and Eastern Zhou...
Confucianism
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Confucianism

Confucianism is a philosophy developed in 6th-century BCE China, which is considered by some a secular-humanist belief system, by some a religion, and by others a social code. The broad range of subjects touched on by Confucianism lends itself...
Religion in Ancient China
Article by Emily Mark

Religion in Ancient China

Religious practices in ancient China go back over 7,000 years. Long before the philosophical and spiritual teachings of Confucius and Lao-Tzu developed or before the teachings of the Buddha came to China, the people worshipped personifications...