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Roman Warfare
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Roman Warfare

Over many centuries and across many territories the Romans were able to win an astonishing number of military victories and their success was due to several important factors. Italy was a peninsula not easily attacked, there was a huge pool...
Parthian Warfare
Definition by Patrick Scott Smith, M. A.

Parthian Warfare

Parthian warfare was characterized by the extensive use of cavalry and archers. Coming at enemy troops from all directions Parthian riders created confusion and wreaked havoc. They even developed the famous “Parthian shot.” Able...
Ancient Persian Warfare
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Warfare

The ancient Persian military evolved from the earlier armed forces of the Medes which, in turn, developed from the warrior class of the indigenous people of the Iranian Plateau, the Aryan migrants (including the Persians) who later settled...
Roman Warfare & Battles
Lesson Pack by Marion Wadowski

Roman Warfare & Battles

We have prepared five lesson plans including classroom activities, assignments, homework, and keys as well as: Multiple choice quiz questions in an excel format Glossary of keywords and concepts in an excel format Open questions...
Warfare & Battles in Ancient Greece
Lesson Pack by Patrick Goodman

Warfare & Battles in Ancient Greece

We have prepared four lesson plans including classroom activities, assignments, homework, and keys as well as: Multiple choice quiz questions in an excel format. Glossary of keywords and concepts in an excel format. Open...
Naval Warfare in Ancient India
Article by Dr Avantika Lal

Naval Warfare in Ancient India

The navy in ancient India carried out three roles: it was used to transport troops to distant battlefields, participate in actual warfare, and was primarily meant for protecting the kingdom’s trade on sea and navigable rivers...
Crossbows in Ancient Chinese Warfare
Article by Mark Cartwright

Crossbows in Ancient Chinese Warfare

The crossbow was introduced into Chinese warfare during the Warring States period (481-221 BCE). Developing over the centuries into a more powerful and accurate weapon, the crossbow also came in versions light enough to be fired with one...
Siege Warfare in Medieval Europe
Article by Mark Cartwright

Siege Warfare in Medieval Europe

Siege tactics were a crucial part of medieval warfare, especially from the 11th century CE when castles became more widespread in Europe and sieges outnumbered pitched battles. Castles and fortified cities offered protection to both the local...
Kingdom of Magadha: Wars and Warfare
Article by Dr Avantika Lal

Kingdom of Magadha: Wars and Warfare

In ancient India from the 6th century BCE onwards, the kingdom of Magadha (6th century BCE to 4th century BCE) made a mark for itself. Located in the eastern part of India in what is today the state of Bihar, it outshone other kingdoms and...
Fortifications in Ancient Chinese Warfare
Article by Mark Cartwright

Fortifications in Ancient Chinese Warfare

While ancient Chinese warfare was often characterised by large armies in pitched battles, siege warfare and the sacking of cities were also regular features. Huge earth walls with towers and encircling ditches or moats became the normal strategy...