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The Battle of Kadesh & the Poem of Pentaur
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Battle of Kadesh & the Poem of Pentaur

The Poem of Pentaur is the official Egyptian record (along with The Bulletin) of the military victory of Ramesses II (known as The Great, 1279-1213 BCE) over the Hittite King Muwatalli II (1295-1272 BCE) at the Battle of Kadesh...
Sassanian Kings List & Commentary
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Sassanian Kings List & Commentary

The Sassanian Empire (224-651 CE) was the greatest expression of Persian culture in the ancient world. It was consciously modeled on the earlier Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) which established Persian supremacy in the region and developed...
The Sea Dogs - Queen Elizabeth's Privateers
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Sea Dogs - Queen Elizabeth's Privateers

The sea dogs, as they were disparagingly called by the Spanish authorities, were privateers who, with the consent and sometimes financial support of Elizabeth I of England (r. 1558-1603 CE), attacked and plundered Spanish colonial settlements...
Sports, Games & Entertainment in the Elizabethan Era
Article by Mark Cartwright

Sports, Games & Entertainment in the Elizabethan Era

Leisure activities in the Elizabethan era (1558-1603 CE) became more varied than in any previous period of English history and more professional with what might be called the first genuine entertainment industry providing the public with...
The Battle of Actium: Birth of an Empire
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Battle of Actium: Birth of an Empire

The battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BCE concluded the Second Macedonian War (200-197 BCE) and consolidated Rome's power in the Mediterranean, finally resulting in Greece becoming a province of Rome in 146 BCE. This engagement...
Travel in the Ancient Greek World
Article by Mark Cartwright

Travel in the Ancient Greek World

Travel opportunities within the ancient Greek world largely depended on status and profession; nevertheless, a significant proportion of the population could, and did, travel across the Mediterranean to sell their wares, skills, go on religious...
The Battle of the Catalaunian Fields
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Battle of the Catalaunian Fields

The Battle of the Catalaunian Fields (also known as The Battle of Chalons, The Battle of Maurica) was one of the most decisive military engagements in history between the forces of the Roman Empire under Flavius Aetius (391-454 CE) and those...
Daily Life in the Inca Empire
Article by Mark Cartwright

Daily Life in the Inca Empire

Daily life in the Inca empire was characterised by strong family relationships, agricultural labour, sometimes enforced state or military service for males, and occasional lighter moments of festivities to celebrate important life events...