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The Siege of Acre, 1189-91 CE
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Siege of Acre, 1189-91 CE

The Siege of Acre, located on the northern coast of Israel, was the first major battle of the Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE). The protracted siege by a mixed force of European armies against the Muslim garrison and nearby army of Saladin, the...
Interview: The Last Days of the Incas (Kim MacQuarrie)
Article by James Blake Wiener

Interview: The Last Days of the Incas (Kim MacQuarrie)

How did a mere 167 Spaniards conquer an empire of 10 million people? The Spanish were outnumbered 200-to-1 yet they were able to seize the Inca capital, Cuzco, and dispose of the Inca ruler within only a year. Kim MacQuarrie’s The Last...
The Nerge: Hunting in the Mongol Empire
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Nerge: Hunting in the Mongol Empire

The peoples of the Mongol Empire (1206-1368 CE) were nomadic, and they relied on hunting wild game as a valuable source of protein. The Asian steppe is a desolate, windy, and often bitterly cold environment, but for those Mongols with sufficient...
Women in the Mongol Empire
Article by Mark Cartwright

Women in the Mongol Empire

Women in the Mongol Empire (1206-1368 CE) shared the daily chores and hardships of steppe life with men and were largely responsible for tending animals, setting up camps, childrearing, producing food and cooking it. Having rather more rights...
The Battle of Kadesh & the Poem of Pentaur
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Battle of Kadesh & the Poem of Pentaur

The Poem of Pentaur is the official Egyptian record (along with The Bulletin) of the military victory of Ramesses II (known as The Great, 1279-1213 BCE) over the Hittite King Muwatalli II (1295-1272 BCE) at the Battle of Kadesh...
Sassanian Kings List & Commentary
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Sassanian Kings List & Commentary

The Sassanian Empire (224-651 CE) was the greatest expression of Persian culture in the ancient world. It was consciously modeled on the earlier Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) which established Persian supremacy in the region and developed...
The Sea Dogs - Queen Elizabeth's Privateers
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Sea Dogs - Queen Elizabeth's Privateers

The sea dogs, as they were disparagingly called by the Spanish authorities, were privateers who, with the consent and sometimes financial support of Elizabeth I of England (r. 1558-1603 CE), attacked and plundered Spanish colonial settlements...
Sports, Games & Entertainment in the Elizabethan Era
Article by Mark Cartwright

Sports, Games & Entertainment in the Elizabethan Era

Leisure activities in the Elizabethan era (1558-1603 CE) became more varied than in any previous period of English history and more professional with what might be called the first genuine entertainment industry providing the public with...
Origins of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy
Article by Jordan Baker

Origins of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) Confederacy

The Haudenosaunee, also known as the Iroquois Confederacy, Iroquois Five Nations, or the Iroquois League, was one of the most powerful Native American polities north of the Rio Grande. They arrived in the historical record in the 16th-century...
The Battle of Actium: Birth of an Empire
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Battle of Actium: Birth of an Empire

The battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BCE concluded the Second Macedonian War (200-197 BCE) and consolidated Rome's power in the Mediterranean, finally resulting in Greece becoming a province of Rome in 146 BCE. This engagement is...