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Chief Powhatan
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Chief Powhatan

Wahunsenacah, also known as Chief Powhatan (l. c. 1547 - c. 1618 CE) was the head of the Powhatan Confederacy of Native Americans who inhabited the region of the modern-day State of Virginia, USA, which they knew by the name of Tsenacommacah...
Shapur I
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Shapur I

Shapur I (r. 240-270 CE) is considered one of the greatest kings of the Sassanian Empire for expanding his realm, his policy of religious tolerance, building projects, and committing the Zoroastrian scriptures (Avesta) to writing. He...
The Phoenicians - Master Mariners
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Phoenicians - Master Mariners

Driven by their desire for trade and the acquisition of such commodities as silver from Spain, gold from Africa, and tin from the Scilly Isles, the Phoenicians sailed far and wide, even beyond the Mediterranean's traditional safe limits of...
Roman Shipbuilding & Navigation
Article by Victor Labate

Roman Shipbuilding & Navigation

Unlike today, where shipbuilding is based on science and where ships are built using computers and sophisticated tools, shipbuilding in ancient Rome was more of an art relying on rules of thumb, inherited techniques and personal experience...
Roman Expeditions in Sub-Saharan Africa
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Roman Expeditions in Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa was explored by Roman expeditions between 19 BCE - 90 CE, most likely in an effort to locate the sources of valuable trade goods and establish routes to bring them to the seaports on the coast of North Africa, thereby minimizing...
Dogs & Their Collars in Ancient Rome
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Dogs & Their Collars in Ancient Rome

Dogs were highly valued in ancient Rome, as they were in other cultures, and the Roman dog served many of the same purposes as it did in, say, Egypt and Persia, but with a significant difference in focus. Like the Egyptians, the Romans created...
Enuma Elish - The Babylonian Epic of Creation - Full Text
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Enuma Elish - The Babylonian Epic of Creation - Full Text

The Enuma Elish (also known as The Seven Tablets of Creation) is the Mesopotamian creation myth whose title is derived from the opening lines of the piece, "When on High". All of the tablets containing the myth, found at Ashur...
The Mongol Invasion of Europe
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Mongol Invasion of Europe

The Mongol invasions of Russia and Eastern Europe occurred first with a brief sortie in 1223 CE and then again in a much larger campaign between 1237 CE and 1242 CE. The Mongols, seemingly coming from nowhere and quickly gaining a reputation...
The Classic Maya Collapse
Article by Mark Cartwright

The Classic Maya Collapse

The Terminal Classic period in Mesoamerica between c. 800 and 925 CE saw one of the most dramatic civilization collapses in history. Within a century or so the flourishing Classic Maya civilization fell into a permanent decline, so that once...
Cortés & the Fall of the Aztec Empire
Article by Mark Cartwright

Cortés & the Fall of the Aztec Empire

The Aztec empire flourished between c. 1345 and 1521 CE and dominated ancient Mesoamerica. This young and warlike nation was highly successful in spreading its reach and gaining fabulous wealth, but then all too quickly came the strange visitors...