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Marcus Claudius Marcellus
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Marcus Claudius Marcellus

Marcus Claudius Marcellus (c. 270-208 BCE) was a five-time consul and, earning the nickname the 'Sword of Rome', he was one of the city’s greatest military commanders. Active in both the First and Second Punic Wars, he also...
Warring States Period
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Warring States Period

The Warring States period (481/403 BCE - 221 BCE) describes the three centuries when various rival Chinese states battled viciously for territorial advantage and dominance. Ultimately the Qin state was victorious and established the first...
Peloponnesian War
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Peloponnesian War

The Peloponnesian War fought between ancient Athens and Sparta (who won) and their respective allies came in two stages, the first from c. 460 to 446 BCE and the second and more significant war from 431 to 404 BCE. With battles occurring...
The Masaesyli and Massylii of Numidia
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Masaesyli and Massylii of Numidia

The North African Berber kingdom of Numidia (202-40 BCE) was originally inhabited by a tribe (or federation of tribes) known as the Masaesyli, to the west, and a coalition of smaller tribes, known as the Massylii, to the east. The meaning...
Roman Army
Definition by James Lloyd

Roman Army

The Roman army, famed for its discipline, organisation, and innovation in both weapons and tactics, allowed Rome to build and defend a huge empire which for centuries would dominate the Mediterranean world and beyond. Overview The Roman...
Greek Fire
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Greek Fire

Greek Fire was an incendiary weapon first used in Byzantine warfare in 678 CE. The napalm of ancient warfare, the highly flammable liquid was made of secret ingredients and used both in catapulted incendiary bombs and sprayed under pressure...
Artashat
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Artashat

Artashat (aka Artaxata) was the capital of Ancient Armenia from 176 BCE and remained so for over 300 years of the kingdom’s history. Located just south of Armenia’s modern capital Yerevan, according to the ancient historian Plutarch...
Sun-Tzu
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Sun-Tzu

Sun Tzu (l. c. 500 BCE) was a Chinese military strategist and general best known as the author of the work The Art of War, a treatise on military strategy (also known as The Thirteen Chapters). He was associated (formally or as an inspiration...
Maya Government
Definition by Maria C. Gomez

Maya Government

Ancient Maya government was formed on the basis that rulers were thought to have been god-like, which to some might suggest one unified state. However, the consensus amongst anthropologists supports that each major Maya city remained its...
Kublai Khan
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Kublai Khan

Kublai Khan (Qubilai-Qan) was the ruler of the Mongol Empire from 1260 to 1294 CE. Kublai Khan’s accomplishments include taking over China and establishing Mongol rule there under the new name of the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368 CE), and...