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Alexandria, Egypt
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Alexandria, Egypt

Alexandria is a port city located on the Mediterranean Sea in northern Egypt founded in 331 BCE by Alexander the Great. It is most famous in antiquity as the site of the Pharos, the great lighthouse, considered one of the seven wonders of...
Jugurtha
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Jugurtha

Jugurtha (r. 118-105 BCE) was King of Numidia in North Africa and grandson of the first Numidian king Masinissa (r. c. 202-148 BCE). He was the illegitimate son of Mastanabal, Masinissa’s youngest son, and was the least likely of Masinissa’s...
Thugga
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Thugga

Thugga (also Dougga) was a town in North Africa which was first a Numidian and then a Carthaginian settlement before being incorporated into the Roman Empire. The town was built on a strategically favourable limestone hilltop overlooking...
Gades
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Gades

Gades (modern-day Cadiz, Spain) was an ancient city located on the island of Erytheia, northwest of Gibraltar at the tip of the Iberian Peninsula and is believed to be one of the most ancient cities still standing in Western Europe. Although...
Saguntum
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Saguntum

Saguntum (modern Sagunto), located near Valencia in Spain, was an Iberian, and then Roman, settlement. The town’s most dramatic moment in history came in the late 3rd century BCE when it was attacked by Hannibal, an act which famously...
Trade in the Roman Empire - Web Quest & Map Skills
Worksheet/Activity by Marion Wadowski

Trade in the Roman Empire - Web Quest & Map Skills

This activity has been designed to fit a 20-30-minute slot for your class and is suitable for both online and classroom teaching. Students have to do a web quest in order to complete a map. It is part of our Roman Economy and Trade...
Romans vs. Carthaginians - Text & Labelling
Worksheet/Activity by Marion Wadowski

Romans vs. Carthaginians - Text & Labelling

This activity has been designed to fit a 20-30-minute slot for your class and is suitable for both online and classroom teaching, as well as homeschooling.  Students have to label the illustrations of Roman and Carthaginian soldiers...
Carthaginian Society
Article by Mark Cartwright

Carthaginian Society

The society of Carthage was dominated by an aristocratic trading class who held all of the important political and religious positions, but below this strata was a cosmopolitan mix of artisans, labourers, mercenaries, slaves, and foreigners...
The Battle of Zama - The Beginning of Roman Conquest
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Battle of Zama - The Beginning of Roman Conquest

The Battle of Zama (202 BCE) was the final engagement of the Second Punic War (218-202 BCE) at which Hannibal Barca of Carthage (l. 247-183 BCE) was defeated by Scipio Africanus of Rome (l. 236-183 BCE) ending the conflict in Rome’s...
Genocide in the Ancient World
Article by Gerard Mulligan

Genocide in the Ancient World

Genocide is often viewed as a particular feature of our own current age. This perception largely stems from the terrible events which took place during World War Two in the 20th century CE in the parts of Europe occupied by the Nazis. However...