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Legacy of the Ancient Romans
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Legacy of the Ancient Romans

The legacy of the ancient Romans – from both the time of the Roman Republic (509-27 BCE) and the time of the Roman Empire (27 BCE - 476 CE) – exerted a significant influence on succeeding cultures and is still felt around the...
Parthian-Scythian Relations
Article by Patrick Scott Smith, M. A.

Parthian-Scythian Relations

While little is written about Parthian-Scythian relations, not only did the Parthians share origins with the Scythians and cooperated militarily but social, cultural, and commercial interactions were likely as well. Essentially...
Marcus Aurelius: Philosopher Emperor or Philosopher-King?
Article by Steven Umbrello

Marcus Aurelius: Philosopher Emperor or Philosopher-King?

Co-authored by Steven Umbrello and Tina Forsee It is very common to hear in both academic circles, as well as more close-knit Stoic circles, Marcus Aurelius (121 – 180 CE) being referred to as the philosopher king. This is not...
Alexander the Great: A Case Study in Martial Leadership
Article by Christopher Berg

Alexander the Great: A Case Study in Martial Leadership

History is not predictable; in many ways it can take on a life of its own. But sometimes, an individual's sheer presence is enough to bend history to his will. One such individual was Alexander the Great. Through his conviction, vision, mental...
Hoysala Architecture
Article by Dhruba RC

Hoysala Architecture

The Hoysala era (1026 CE – 1343 CE) was marked by illustrious achievements in art, architecture, and culture. The nucleus of this activity lay in the present day Hassan district of Karnataka, India. The most remarkable accomplishment...
Alexander the Great as a God
Article by Donald L. Wasson

Alexander the Great as a God

The age-old concept of the “divine right of kings” allowed that a country's ruler received his or her power or authority from God. However, few, if any, were delusional enough to actually believe themselves to be a god. ...
Temple of Artemis at Ephesus
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Temple of Artemis at Ephesus

The Temple of Artemis at Ephesus located on the western coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) was built in the 6th century BCE, and such was its tremendous size, double the dimensions of other Greek temples including the Parthenon, that it...
Faras
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Faras

Faras was an important town near Abu Simbel in southern Egypt/northern Kush (modern-day Sudan). It was a center of trade and administrative offices which was founded between 2040-1750 BCE. In the New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) a temple...
Amphipolis
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Amphipolis

Amphipolis, located on a plain in northern Macedonia near Mt. Pangaion and the river Strymon, was an Athenian colony founded c. 437 BCE on the older Thracian site of Ennea Hodoi. Thucydides relates that the Athenian general Hagnon so named...
Gezer
Definition by Henry Curtis Pelgrift

Gezer

Gezer is an ancient city and archaeological site located in central Israel where the central mountains meet the northern Shephelah, about 10 km southeast of the city of Ramleh. According to the Hebrew Bible, Gezer was one of the great...