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Michael III
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Michael III

Michael III, also known as “Michael the Drunkard” by his detractors, was emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 842 to 867 CE. Never quite escaping the shadow of his mother Theodora, who ruled as regent in his name until c. 855...
Constantine V
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Constantine V

Constantine V, also known as Constantine the Dung-named by his enemies, was emperor of the Byzantine empire from 741 to 775 CE. He enjoyed military successes in the Middle East and Balkans but his reign is chiefly remembered for his systematic...
Byzantium
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Byzantium

The ancient city of Byzantium was founded by Greek colonists from Megara around 657 BCE. According to the historian Tacitus, it was built on the European side of the Strait of Bosporus on the order of the “god of Delphi” who said...
Daily Life in the Inca Empire
Article by Mark Cartwright

Daily Life in the Inca Empire

Daily life in the Inca empire was characterised by strong family relationships, agricultural labour, sometimes enforced state or military service for males, and occasional lighter moments of festivities to celebrate important life events...
Byzantine-Armenian Relations
Article by Mark Cartwright

Byzantine-Armenian Relations

The relationship between the Byzantine Empire and ancient Armenia was a constant and varied one with an equal mix of wars, occupations, treaties of friendship, mutual military aid, and cultural exchange. Regarded as a vital defence to the...
The Differences Between Byzantine & Armenian Christianity
Article by Michael Goodyear

The Differences Between Byzantine & Armenian Christianity

Although both the Byzantines and the Armenians were Christian, the types of Christianity they professed had important differences that led to a lack of recognition and tensions between the two groups and a considerable part of their relationship...
The Isaurians and the End of Germanic Influence in Byzantium
Article by Michael Goodyear

The Isaurians and the End of Germanic Influence in Byzantium

Germanic influence reigned in the Roman Empire from the end of the 4th century CE through the 5th. Germanic individuals took important posts in the government and the military, and Germanic tribes penetrated ever further into lands that had...
Justinian's Plague (541-542 CE)
Article by John Horgan

Justinian's Plague (541-542 CE)

During the reign of the emperor Justinian I (527-565 CE), one of the worst outbreaks of the plague took place, claiming the lives of millions of people. The plague arrived in Constantinople in 542 CE, almost a year after the disease...
Battle of Ad Decimum
Article by Nathan Stafford

Battle of Ad Decimum

The Battle of Ad Decimum near Carthage, North Africa took place in September 533 CE and was the first major battle of the Vandalic War (533 - 534 CE) between the forces of the Byzantine Empire and the Vandal Kingdom. Leading the Vandals...
1204: The Sack of Constantinople
Article by Mark Cartwright

1204: The Sack of Constantinople

In 1204 CE the unthinkable happened and Constantinople, after nine centuries of withstanding all comers, was brutally sacked. Even more startling was the fact that the perpetrators were not any of the traditional enemies of the Byzantine...