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Battle of Yarmouk
Articleby Syed Muhammad Khan

Battle of Yarmouk

The Battle of Yarmouk River (or Yarmuk River; also written as the Battle of Jabiya-Yarmuk) was fought over the course of six days, from 15 to 20 August 636 CE, between the Muslim army of the Rashidun Caliphate (632-661 CE), under Khalid ibn...
Early Muslim Conquests (622-656 CE)
Articleby Syed Muhammad Khan

Early Muslim Conquests (622-656 CE)

Islam arose as a religious and socio-political force in Arabia in the 7th century CE (610 CE onwards). The Islamic Prophet Muhammad (l. 570-632 CE), despite facing resistance and persecution, amassed a huge following and started building...
The Salt Trade of Ancient West Africa
Articleby Mark Cartwright

The Salt Trade of Ancient West Africa

Salt from the Sahara desert was one of the major trade goods of ancient West Africa where very little naturally occurring deposits of the mineral could be found. Transported via camel caravans and by boat along such rivers as the Niger and...
Edessa
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Edessa

Edessa (modern Urfa), located today in south-east Turkey but once part of upper Mesopotamia on the frontier of the Syrian desert, was an important city throughout antiquity and the Middle Ages. A city within the Seleucid Empire, then capital...
The Byzantine Empire c. 1045 CE
Imageby Andrei nacu

The Byzantine Empire c. 1045 CE

Map depicting the Byzantine Empire in 1045 CE showing its administrative divisions and its neighbours.
Ardashir I
Definitionby Joshua J. Mark

Ardashir I

Ardashir I (l. c. 180-241 CE, r. 224-240 CE) was the founder of the Persian Sassanian Empire (224-651 CE) and father of the great Sassanian king Shapur I (r. 240-270 CE). He is also known as Ardashir I Babakan, Ardeshir I, Ardashir the Unifier...
Women in Ancient Persia
Articleby Joshua J. Mark

Women in Ancient Persia

Women in ancient Persia were not only highly respected but, in many cases, considered the equals of males. Women could own land, conduct business, received equal pay, could travel freely on their own, and in the case of royal women...
Byzantine Jeweled Bracelet
Imageby Metropolitan Museum of Art

Byzantine Jeweled Bracelet

Dating to 500-700 CE, this gold bracelet is elaborately decorated with silver, pearls, amethyst, sapphire, glass and quartz. The interior features opus interrasile patterns. Overall, it measures 3.8 x 8.2 cm; the strap measures 2.3 x 19.5...
Tyrian Purple
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Tyrian Purple

Tyrian purple (aka Royal purple or Imperial purple) is a dye extracted from the murex shellfish which was first produced by the Phoenician city of Tyre in the Bronze Age. Its difficulty of manufacture, striking purple to red colour range...
Mongol Empire
Definitionby Mark Cartwright

Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire (1206-1368 CE) eventually dominated Asia from the Black Sea to the Korean peninsula following the initial conquests of its founder Genghis Khan (aka Chinggis, r. 1206-1227 CE), the first Great Khan or 'universal ruler'...