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Ancient Persian Art and Architecture
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Art and Architecture

Persian art and architecture in the present day is associated with the nation of Iran and usually designated as beginning with the Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) but has an even longer history with its origins dating back to before the...
Ancient Chinese Architecture
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Ancient Chinese Architecture

Walled compounds, raised pavilions, wooden columns and panelling, yellow glazed roof tiles,  landscaped gardens, and a careful application of town planning and use of space are all notable features of the architecture of ancient...
Etruscan Architecture
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Etruscan Architecture

The architecture of the Etruscan civilization, which flourished in central Italy from the 8th to 3rd century BCE, has largely been obliterated both by the conquering Romans and time, but the very influence of the Etruscans on Roman architecture...
Maya Architecture
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Maya Architecture

Maya architecture is best characterized by the soaring pyramid temples and ornate palaces which were built in all Maya centres across Mesoamerica from El Tajin in the north to Copan in the south. The Maya civilization was formed of independent...
Greek Architecture
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Greek Architecture

Greek architects provided some of the finest and most distinctive buildings in the entire Ancient World and some of their structures, such as temples, theatres, and stadia, would become staple features of towns and cities from antiquity onwards...
Gupta Architecture
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Gupta Architecture

The Gupta Dynasty, founded by Chandragupta I (accession c. 320 CE), ruled in North Central India between the 4th and 6th centuries CE and the period is considered a golden age of artistic accomplishment. The Guptas were the first architects...
Ancient Korean Architecture
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Ancient Korean Architecture

The architecture of ancient Korea is epitomised by the artful combination of wood and stone to create elegant and spacious multi-roomed structures characterised by clay tile roofing, enclosures within protective walls, interior courtyards...
Hindu Architecture
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Hindu Architecture

Hindu architecture evolved over the centuries from simple rock-cut cave shrines to massive and ornate temples which spread across the Indian sub-continent and beyond, forming a canonical style which is still adhered to today in modern Hindu...
Phoenician Architecture
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Phoenician Architecture

Phoenician architecture is typified by large temples with double-columned facades approached by a short staircase, enclosed sacred spaces containing cube-like and open-fronted shrines, and such large-scale engineering projects as dams and...
Shinto Architecture
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Shinto Architecture

The architecture of the 80,000 Shinto shrines in Japan varies depending on geographical location, the deity worshipped, and the date of foundation. The earlier Shinto shrines tend to be simpler and less decorative affairs than those which...