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Dur-Sharrukin
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Dur-Sharrukin

Dur-Sharrukin (modern day Khorsabad, Iraq) was a city built by Sargon II of Assyria (reigned 722-705 BCE) as his new capital. The name means “Fortress of Sargon” and the building project became the king's near obsession as soon...
Sargon II
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Sargon II

Sargon II (r. 722-705 BCE) was one of the most important kings of the Neo-Assyrian Empire as founder of the Sargonid Dynasty which would rule the empire for the next century until its fall. He was a great military leader, tactician...
Mitanni
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Mitanni

The Kingdom of Mittani, known to the people of the land, and the Assyrians, as Hanigalbat and to the Egyptians as Naharin and Metani, once stretched from present-day northern Iraq, down through Syria and into Turkey and was considered a great...
Tiglath Pileser III
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Tiglath Pileser III

Tiglath Pileser III (745-727 BCE) was among the most powerful kings of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and, according to many scholars, the founder of the empire (as opposed to the claims for Adad Nirari II (912-891 BCE) or Ashurnasirpal II (884-859...
Adad Nirari I
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Adad Nirari I

Adad Nirari I (r. 1307-1275 BCE) was the king of the Assyrian Empire who initiated the first major expansion of the Assyrian kingdom from the city of Ashur throughout the region of Mesopotamia. He also instituted what would become standard...
Kalhu / Nimrud
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Kalhu / Nimrud

Kalhu (also known as Caleh, Calah, and Nimrud, in modern-day northern Iraq) was a city in ancient Mesopotamia that became the capital of the Assyrian Empire under Ashurnasirpal II (reigned 884-859 BCE) who moved the central government there...
Ashur
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ashur

Ashur (also known as Assur) was an Assyrian city located on a plateau above the Tigris River in Mesopotamia (today known as Qalat Sherqat, northern Iraq). The city was an important center of trade, as it lay squarely on a caravan trade route...
Marduk
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Marduk

Marduk was the patron god of Babylon, the Babylonian king of the gods, who presided over justice, compassion, healing, regeneration, magic, and fairness, although he is also sometimes referenced as a storm god and agricultural deity. His...
Ashurnasirpal II
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ashurnasirpal II

Ashurnasirpal II (r. 884-859 BCE) was the third king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. His father was Tukulti-Ninurta II (r. 891-884 BCE) whose military campaigns throughout the region provided his son with a sizeable empire and the resources...
Sammu-Ramat and Semiramis: The Inspiration and the Myth
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Sammu-Ramat and Semiramis: The Inspiration and the Myth

Sammu-Ramat (r. 811-806 BCE) was the queen regent of the Assyrian Empire who held the throne for her young son Adad Nirari III (r. 811-783 BCE) until he reached maturity. She is also known as Shammuramat, Sammuramat, and, most notably...