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Ashurnasirpal II
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ashurnasirpal II

Ashurnasirpal II (r. 884-859 BCE) was the third king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. His father was Tukulti-Ninurta II (r. 891-884 BCE) whose military campaigns throughout the region provided his son with a sizeable empire and the resources...
Kalhu / Nimrud
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Kalhu / Nimrud

Kalhu (also known as Caleh, Calah, and Nimrud, in modern-day northern Iraq) was a city in ancient Mesopotamia that became the capital of the Assyrian Empire under Ashurnasirpal II (reigned 884-859 BCE) who moved the central government there...
Ashur
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ashur

Ashur (also known as Assur) was an Assyrian city located on a plateau above the Tigris River in Mesopotamia (today known as Qalat Sherqat, northern Iraq). The city was an important center of trade, as it lay squarely on a caravan trade route...
Ninurta
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ninurta

Ninurta (identified with Ningirsu, Pabilsag, and the biblical Nimrod) is the Sumerian and Akkadian hero-god of war, hunting, and the south wind. He first appears in texts in the early 3rd millennium BCE as an agricultural god and local deity...
The Greatest Party Ever Thrown: Ashurnasirpal II’s Kalhu Festival
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Greatest Party Ever Thrown: Ashurnasirpal II’s Kalhu Festival

The kings of the Neo-Assyrian Empire (912-612 BCE) have long been considered some of the most ruthless monarchs in ancient history. At the same time, they were sacking cities and slaughtering those who rebelled against...
The Banquet Stele of Ashurnasirpal II
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Banquet Stele of Ashurnasirpal II

When he came to the throne in 884 BCE, Ashurnasirpal II had to attend to revolts which broke out across the empire. He ruthlessly put down all rebellions, destroyed the rebel cities and, as a warning to others, impaled, burned, and flayed...
Wall Reliefs: Ashurnasirpal II's War Scenes at the British Museum
Article by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Wall Reliefs: Ashurnasirpal II's War Scenes at the British Museum

The Mighty King 600 of their warriors I put to the sword and decapitated; 400 I took alive; 3,000 captives I brought forth; I took possession of the city for myself: the living soldiers, and heads to the city of Amidi the royal city...
Wall Reliefs: Apkallus of the North-West Palace at Nimrud
Article by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Wall Reliefs: Apkallus of the North-West Palace at Nimrud

Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people. (Karl Marx, Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right). When it comes to religion...
History of Assyria
Article by Jan van der Crabben

History of Assyria

The foundation of the Assyrian dynasty can be traced to Zulilu, who is said to have lived after Bel-kap-kapu (c. 1900 BCE), the ancestor of Shalmaneser I. The city-state of Ashur rose to prominence in northern Mesopotamia, founding trade...
The Nimrud Ivories: Their Discovery & History
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Nimrud Ivories: Their Discovery & History

In 1845 CE, the archaeologist Austen Henry Layard began excavations at the ruins of the city of Nimrud in the region which is northern Iraq in the present day. Layard's expedition was part of a larger movement at the time to uncover ancient...