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Alexander the Great
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon, known as Alexander the Great (l. 20 or 21 July 356 BCE – 10 or 11 June 323 BCE, r. 336-323 BCE), was the son of King Philip II of Macedon (r. 359-336 BCE). He became king upon his father’s death...
Hephaestion
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Hephaestion

Hephaestion was a member of Alexander the Great's personal bodyguard and the Macedonian king's closest and lifelong friend and advisor. So much so, Hephaestion's death would bring the young king to tears. From 334 to 323 BCE Alexander...
Battle of Gaugamela
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Battle of Gaugamela

The Battle of Gaugamela (1st October 331 BCE, also known as the Battle of Arbela) was the final meeting between Alexander the Great of Macedon and King Darius III of Persia. After this victory, Alexander was, without question, the King...
Perdiccas
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Perdiccas

Perdiccas (d. 321 BCE) was one of Alexander the Great's commanders, and after his death, custodian of the treasury, regent over Philip III and Alexander IV, and commander of the royal army. When Alexander the Great crossed the Hellespont...
Antipater
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Antipater

Antipater (c. 399-319 BCE) was a Macedonian statesman and loyal lieutenant of both Alexander the Great and his father Philip II of Macedon. As a regent in Alexander's absence, Antipater subdued rebellions and mollified uprisings, proving...
Battle of Issus
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Battle of Issus

The Battle of Issus, on 5 November 333 BCE, was Alexander the Great's second battle against the Persian army and the first direct engagement with King Darius III, near the village of Issus in southern modern-day Turkey...
Battle of the Granicus
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Battle of the Granicus

The Battle of the Granicus in May 334 BCE was Alexander the Great's (356-323 BCE) first major victory against the forces of the Achaemenid Empire. Alexander had crossed the Hellespont with his combined Macedonian and...
Macedon
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Macedon

Macedon was an ancient kingdom located in the north of the Greek peninsula first inhabited by the Mackednoi tribe who, according to Herodotus, were the first to call themselves 'Hellenes’ (later applied to all Greeks) and who...
Olympias
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Olympias

Alexander the Great owed much to the influence of his parents: from his father, Philip II, he learned the art of warfare, but by far the most influential person in his life was his mother, Olympias. From her he inherited not only his love...
Cassander
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Cassander

Cassander (c. 355-297 BCE, r. 305-297 BCE) was self-proclaimed king of Macedon during the political turmoil following Alexander's death. Born in Greece as the son of Antipater, the regent of Macedon and Greece in the absence of Alexander...