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Chogha Zanbil
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Chogha Zanbil

Chogha Zanbil (literally “basket mound”) is an ancient Elamite temple complex located in the modern-day province of Khuzestan, Iran. It is also known as Dur-Untash (Fortress/City/Town of Untash), Tchogha Zanbil, and Al Untash...
Commagene
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Commagene

The Kingdom of Commagene (163 BCE - 72 CE) was a Hellenistic political entity, heavily influenced by Armenian and ancient Persian culture and traditions, established in southwestern Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) by Ptolemaeus of Commagene...
Palestine
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Palestine

Palestine in the ancient world was part of the region known as Canaan where the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah were located. The term `Palestine’ was originally a designation of an area of land in southern Canaan...
Ashurnasirpal II
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ashurnasirpal II

Ashurnasirpal II (r. 884-859 BCE) was the third king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. His father was Tukulti-Ninurta II (r. 891-884 BCE) whose military campaigns throughout the region provided his son with a sizeable empire and the resources...
Urbanization
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Urbanization

Urbanization is the process by which rural communities grow to form cities, or urban centers, and, by extension, the growth and expansion of those cities. Urbanization began in ancient Mesopotamia in the Uruk Period (4300-3100 BCE) for reasons...
Literature
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Literature

Literature (from the Latin Littera meaning 'letters’ and referring to an acquaintance with the written word) is the written work of a specific culture, sub-culture, religion, philosophy or the study of such written work which may...
Esarhaddon
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Esarhaddon

Esarhaddon (reigned 681-669 BCE) was the third king of the Sargonid Dynasty of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. He was the youngest son of King Sennacherib (reigned 705-681 BCE), and his mother was not the queen but a concubine named Zakutu (also...
Ancient Armenia
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Ancient Armenia

Ancient Armenia, located in the south Caucasus area of Eurasia, was settled in the Neolithic era but its first recorded state proper was the kingdom of Urartu from the 9th century BCE. Incorporated into the Persian Empire of Cyrus the Great...
Statue of a Minor Deity & Tributary Scenes Khorsabad
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Statue of a Minor Deity & Tributary Scenes Khorsabad

On the right, a statue of a minor deity (probably Ea) stands and holds a vessel in his hands, from which water flows. It is one of a pair of statues which were found outside the entrance (in front of trees) to the Temple of Sin at Khorsabad...
Tribute Bearers from Urartu
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Tribute Bearers from Urartu

Two bearded male figures from Urartu carrying tribute. This alabaster-bas relief is part of a long tributary scene, where the Assyrian king, Sargon II (not shown here), stands majestically, waiting to receive the tribute from Urartu (modern-day...