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Ancient Cyprus
Definition by Antonios Loizides

Ancient Cyprus

Cyprus is a large island located in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, east of Greece, south of Asia Minor, west of the Levant, and north of Egypt.  The naming of the island is a matter of dispute amongst historians. One theory suggests...
Zakutu
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Zakutu

Zakutu (c. 701-c.668 BCE) was the Akkadian name of Naqia, a wife of King Sennacherib of Assyria, who reigned between 705-681 BCE. Though she was not Sennacherib's queen, she bore him a son, Esarhaddon, who would succeed him. She...
Bronze Age Collapse
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Bronze Age Collapse

The Bronze Age Collapse (also known as Late Bronze Age Collapse) is a modern-day term referring to the decline and fall of major Mediterranean civilizations during the 13th-12th centuries BCE. The precise cause of the Bronze Age Collapse...
Cilicia Campestris
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Cilicia Campestris

Cilicia Campestris was one of the six districts of the Roman province of Cilicia organized by Pompey the Great (l. c. 106-48 BCE) in 64 BCE. The name translates roughly into “Cilicia of the Plains” and corresponds to the earlier...
Ancient Jordan
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Jordan

Jordan is a country in the Near East bordered by Israel, Syria, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia which was part of the Land of Canaan in ancient times. The country is named for the River Jordan which flows between modern-day Jordan and Israel and whose...
Kaskians
Definition by Rodrigo Quijada Plubins

Kaskians

The Kaska or Kaskians were a tribe of the Pontus, northern Anatolia (today's Turkey), around the Kizil Irmak river mouth, bordering on and constantly harrasing the Hittite empire. That area is mostly mountainous in nature, and there the...
Tukulti-Ninurta I
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Tukulti-Ninurta I

Tukulti-Ninurta I (reigned 1244-1208 BCE) was a king of the Assyrian Empire during the period known as the Middle Empire. He was the son of Shalmaneser I (reigned 1274-1245 BCE) who had completed the work of his father, Adad Nirari I, in...
Hurrians
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Hurrians

The Hurrians (aka Hurri or Khurri) were a Bronze Age people who flourished across the Near East from the 4th millennium BCE to the 1st millennium BCE. Hurrian is also the name of the language these people spoke and, indeed, is the one constant...
Phoenician Colonization
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Phoenician Colonization

The prosperity of Phoenician cities such as Tyre, Sidon, and Byblos was based on trade, and it was the search for new commodities and new markets which resulted in the Phoenicians branching out from the narrow coastal strip of the Levant...
Mari
Definition by Henry Curtis Pelgrift

Mari

Mari was a city-state located near the west bank of the Euphrates River in Northern Mesopotamia (now eastern Syria) during the Early Bronze Age and the Middle Bronze Age. One of the earliest known planned cities, Mari is believed...