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High-Ranking Assyrian Officials
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

High-Ranking Assyrian Officials

This almost 3 meter high alabaster bas-relief depicts 4 high-ranking Assyrian officials or dignitaries, stepping forward to greet the Assyrian king, Sargon II. Leading them is the Assyrian Turtanu (not shown here), who should first meet and...
Ivory Writing-Board from Nimrud
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Ivory Writing-Board from Nimrud

This is the outer cover of the ivory writing-boards (6 in number) incised with four lines of Assyrian cuneiform text, giving the title of the astrological script which was a compilation of omens ordered by Neo-Assyrian king Sargon II (reigned...
Hero Overpowering a Lion
Image by Thierry Ollivier

Hero Overpowering a Lion

The Hero Overpowering a Lion Neo-Assyrian period, reign of Sargon II (721-705 BC) Khorsabad, ancient city of Dur Sharrukin, facade N of the throne room of the palace of Sargon II, Assyria (Iraq). High relief, gypseous alabaster, traces...
Archer Relief, Khorsabad
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Archer Relief, Khorsabad

This gypsum relief, which depicts an archer, was part of a larger wall relief that demonstrates the Assyrian army and Sargon II's attack on the city of Amqaruna (Biblical Ekron) in central Palestine, probably in 720 BCE. The archer holds...
Sennacherib as a Crown Prince
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Sennacherib as a Crown Prince

Detail of a gypsum wall relief showing an Assyrian Official wearing a diadem, possibly Sennacherib, the crown prince, who faces Sargon II, his father (not shown here). Neo-Assyrian Period, 710-705 BCE. From the palace of Sargon II at Khorsabad...
Inventions & Innovations of Ancient Persia
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Inventions & Innovations of Ancient Persia

Ancient Persian culture contributed many of the aspects of the modern world which people simply take for granted as having always existed. The designation “Persia” comes from the Greeks – primarily standardized by the historian...
The Eternal Life of Gilgamesh
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Eternal Life of Gilgamesh

The Epic of Gilgamesh is among the most popular works of literature in the present day and has influenced countless numbers of readers but, for the greater part of its history, it was lost. The Assyrian Empire fell to a coalition of...
Trade in the Phoenician World
Article by Mark Cartwright

Trade in the Phoenician World

The Phoenicians, based on a narrow coastal strip of the Levant, put their excellent seafaring skills to good use and created a network of colonies and trade centres across the ancient Mediterranean. Their major trade routes were by sea to...
The Nimrud Dogs
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Nimrud Dogs

In 612 BCE the Neo-Assyrian Empire fell to the invading forces of Babylonians, Persians, Medes, and Scythians. The empire had been expanding in every direction since the reign of Adad Nirari II (c. 912-891 BCE) and grew more powerful under...
Bureaucracy in the Achaemenid Empire: Learning from the Past
Article by Haleh Brooks

Bureaucracy in the Achaemenid Empire: Learning from the Past

In the early days of the Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE), the kings came to realise that, if they were to be able to administer the vast mass of land and the multicultural people who inhabited it, they had to create an organizational...