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Orleans Cathedral
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Orleans Cathedral

The Cathedral of the Holy Cross (Saint-Croix) of Orleans in the Centre-Val de Loire region of France, was first built in the 13th century CE on the site of a series of older churches dating back to the 4th century CE. The cathedral, which...
Karakorum
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Karakorum

Karakorum (aka Qaraqorum, modern name: Harhorin) is located in the Orkhon Valley of central Mongolia and was the capital of the Mongol Empire from 1235 to 1263 CE. Ogedei Khan (r. 1229-1241 CE) ordered its construction, had a walled palace...
Battle of Agincourt
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Battle of Agincourt

The Battle of Agincourt on 25 October 1415 CE saw Henry V of England (r. 1413-1422 CE) defeat an overwhelmingly larger French army as part of the ongoing Hundred Year’s War (1337-1453 CE). The English won thanks to the superior longbow...
Rene Descartes
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Rene Descartes

Rene Descartes (1596-1650 CE) was a French mathematician, natural scientist, and philosopher, best known by the phrase 'Cogito ergo sum' ('I think therefore I am'). He published works on optics, coordinate geometry...
Benvenuto Cellini
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Benvenuto Cellini

Benvenuto Cellini (1500-1571 CE) was an Italian Renaissance sculptor, medallist, and goldsmith whose most famous works today include the bronze statue of Perseus holding the head of Medusa, which now stands in Florence, and a magnificent...
Twelve Great Viking Leaders
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Twelve Great Viking Leaders

The Viking Age (c. 790-1100 CE) transformed every aspect of the cultures the Norse came in contact with. The Vikings usually struck without warning and, in the early years, left with their plunder and slaves to be sold as quickly as they...
Twelve Greatest Illuminated Manuscripts
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Twelve Greatest Illuminated Manuscripts

Illuminated manuscripts are, as their name suggests, hand-made books illumined by gold and silver ink. They were produced in Western Europe between c. 500 and c. 1600 CE and their subject matter is usually Christian scripture, practice...
Information & Communication Technologies in Cultural Heritage & Tourism
Article by James Blake Wiener

Information & Communication Technologies in Cultural Heritage & Tourism

Information and communication technologies (ICT) are revolutionizing the ways in which the public interacts, understands, and appreciates the importance of cultural heritage around the world. They are additionally enabling sustainable tourism...
Unam Sanctam: Spiritual Authority & the Medieval Church
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Unam Sanctam: Spiritual Authority & the Medieval Church

The medieval Church developed and retained its power by encouraging the innate human fear of death and the Church’s vision of itself as the only path to salvation from hell. The pagan systems of the past all had some version of judgment...
Causes of the Hundred Years' War
Article by Mark Cartwright

Causes of the Hundred Years' War

The Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE) was an intermittent conflict fought between England and France that started when king Edward III of England (r. 1327-1377 CE) squabbled with Philip VI of France (r. 1328-1350 CE) over feudal...