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Knights Templar
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Knights Templar

The Knights Templar, established c. 1119 CE and given papal recognition in 1129 CE, was a Catholic medieval military order whose members combined martial prowess with a monastic life for the purpose of defending Christian holy sites and pilgrims...
Henry IV of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Henry IV of England

Henry IV of England ruled as king from 1399 to 1413 CE. Known as Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster before he became king, Henry clashed with his cousin Richard II of England (r. 1377-1399 CE) and was exiled in 1397 CE. Returning to England...
Gisela of France
Definition by Martine Mussies

Gisela of France

Gisela of France was a legendary 10th-century CE Francian princess, who, according to tradition, was married off to Viking leader Rollo of Normandy. Her name, Gisela or Gisla, comes from an Old German word meaning "to pledge", the...
Samothrace
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Samothrace

Samothrace (Samothrake) is a Greek island in the northern Aegean which was prominent from the Classical period as a member of the Delian League. Its greatest claim to fame was as a cult centre favoured by Macedon and visited by pilgrims from...
Bayeux Tapestry
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Bayeux Tapestry

The Bayeux Tapestry shows in pictures the events leading up to the Norman conquest of Anglo-Saxon England by William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy, and his defeat of King Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings in 1066 CE. The tapestry...
Medieval Trades
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Medieval Trades

Many trades in medieval times were essential to the daily welfare of the community and those who had learned a skill through apprenticeship could expect to make a higher and more regular income than farmers or even soldiers. Such professionals...
Iphigenia in Aulis
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Iphigenia in Aulis

Iphigenia in Aulis (or at Aulis) was written by Euripides, the youngest and most popular of the trilogy of great Greek tragedians. The play was based on the well-known myth surrounding the sacrifice of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra’s...
Christine de Pizan
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Christine de Pizan

Christine de Pizan (also given as Christine de Pisan, l. 1364 - c. 1430 CE) was the first female professional writer of the Middle Ages and the first woman of letters in France. She was born in Venice, Italy but her family soon moved to France...
Leonardo da Vinci
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519 CE) was an Italian Renaissance artist, architect, engineer, and scientist. Renowned for his ability to observe and capture the natural world, scientific phenomena, and human emotions in all media, Leonardo produced...
Orleans Cathedral
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Orleans Cathedral

The Cathedral of the Holy Cross (Saint-Croix) of Orleans in the Centre-Val de Loire region of France, was first built in the 13th century CE on the site of a series of older churches dating back to the 4th century CE. The cathedral, which...