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Henry V of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Henry V of England

Henry V of England ruled as king from 1413 to 1422 CE. Succeeding his father Henry IV of England (r. 1399-1413 CE), Prince Henry established himself as a fine military leader in battles against English and Welsh rebels in the...
Thomas Becket
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Thomas Becket

Thomas Becket (aka Thomas á Becket and St. Thomas of Canterbury) served as chancellor to Henry II of England (r. 1154-1189 CE) and then was appointed the archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 to 1170 CE. Thomas repeatedly clashed...
Hundred Years' War
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Hundred Years' War

The Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) was an intermittent conflict between England and France which ran on for 116 years. The war began principally because King Edward III of England (r. 1327-1377 CE) and Philip VI of France (r...
Henry VI of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Henry VI of England

Henry VI of England ruled as king from 1422 to 1461 CE and again from 1470 to 1471 CE. Succeeding his father Henry V of England (r. 1413-1422 CE), Henry VI was crowned the king of France in 1431 CE but he could not prevent a French revival...
Gothic Cathedrals: Architecture & Divine Light
Article by Hillary Smith

Gothic Cathedrals: Architecture & Divine Light

Gothic cathedrals are some of the most recognizable and magnificent architectural feats. With soaring towers and softly filtered light streaming through stained glass windows, everything about the Gothic cathedral is transportive and ethereal...
Black Death
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Black Death

The Black Death was a plague pandemic which devastated Europe from 1347 to 1352 CE, killing an estimated 25-30 million people. The disease, caused by a bacillus bacteria and carried by fleas on rodents, originated in central Asia and was...
Lagertha
Definition by Emma Groeneveld

Lagertha

Lagertha (also spelt Lathgertha or Ladgerda) is a legendary Viking shieldmaiden known from Saxo Grammaticus’ early 13th-century CE Gesta Danorum. In this work, written in Latin and concerning Danish history, she is the first wife of...
Sparta
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Sparta

Sparta was one of the most important Greek city-states throughout the Archaic and Classical periods and was famous for its military prowess. The professional and well-trained Spartan hoplites with their distinctive red cloaks, long hair...
Byzantine Art
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Byzantine Art

Byzantine art (4th - 15th century CE) is generally characterised by a move away from the naturalism of the Classical tradition towards the more abstract and universal, there is a definite preference for two-dimensional representations, and...
Illuminated Manuscripts
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Illuminated Manuscripts

Illuminated manuscripts were hand-made books, usually on Christian scripture or practice, produced in Western Europe between c. 500-c. 1600 CE. They are so called because of the use of gold and silver which illuminates the text and accompanying...