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Etruscan Art
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Etruscan Art

The art of the Etruscans, who flourished in central Italy between the 8th and 3rd century BCE, is renowned for its vitality and often vivid colouring. Wall paintings were especially vibrant and frequently capture scenes of Etruscans enjoying...
Knights Hospitaller
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Knights Hospitaller

The Knights Hospitaller was a medieval Catholic military order founded in 1113 CE with the full name of ‘Knights of the Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem’. After their base was relocated to Rhodes in the early 14th...
Ancient Crete
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Ancient Crete

Crete is an island in the eastern Mediterranean which during the Bronze Age produced the influential Minoan civilization with its distinctive architecture and art. An important member of the Greek world in the Archaic period, Crete dipped...
The Economy of Ptolemaic Egypt
Article by Arienne King

The Economy of Ptolemaic Egypt

Ptolemaic Egypt rapidly established itself as an economic powerhouse of the ancient world at the end of the 4th century BCE. The wealth of Egypt was owed in large part to the unrivalled fertility of the Nile, which served as the breadbasket...
Parthia: Rome's Ablest Competitor
Article by Patrick Scott Smith, M. A.

Parthia: Rome's Ablest Competitor

As a superpower in its own right and in competition with Rome, Parthia’s empire - ruling from 247 BCE to 224 CE - stretched between the Mediterranean in the west to India in the east. Not only did the Parthians win battles against Rome...
Carthaginian Naval Warfare
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Carthaginian Naval Warfare

The Carthaginians were famed in antiquity for their seafaring skills and innovation in ship design. The empire their navy protected stretched from Sicily to the Atlantic coast of Africa. Able to match the tyrants of Sicily and the Hellenistic...
Aytap
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Aytap

Aytap is the modern name for the ancient city of Iotapa (sometimes given as Iotape and Iotape Philadelphos) in Cilicia. The city’s ruins are located in southern Turkey near modern day Alanya (ancient Coracesium). The city was founded...
Cilicia Campestris
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Cilicia Campestris

Cilicia Campestris was one of the six districts of the Roman province of Cilicia organized by Pompey the Great (l. c. 106-48 BCE) in 64 BCE. The name translates roughly into “Cilicia of the Plains” and corresponds to the earlier...
Sabratha
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Sabratha

Sabratha was an ancient port city on the coast of North Africa (in modern-day Libya). The site was originally inhabited by the indigenous Berber Zwagha tribe in the 8th century BCE (according to the 11th-century CE historian al-Bakari) who...
Food & Agriculture in Ancient Greece
Article by Mark Cartwright

Food & Agriculture in Ancient Greece

The prosperity of the majority of Greek city-states was based on agriculture and the ability to produce the necessary surplus which allowed some citizens to pursue other trades and pastimes and to create a quantity of exported goods so that...