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Knights Hospitaller
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Knights Hospitaller

The Knights Hospitaller was a medieval Catholic military order founded in 1113 CE with the full name of ‘Knights of the Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem’. After their base was relocated to Rhodes in the early 14th...
Sea Peoples
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Sea Peoples

The Sea Peoples were a confederacy of naval raiders who harried the coastal towns and cities of the Mediterranean region between c. 1276-1178 BCE, concentrating their efforts especially on Egypt. They are considered one of the major contributing...
Ancient Crete
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Ancient Crete

Crete is an island in the eastern Mediterranean which during the Bronze Age produced the influential Minoan civilization with its distinctive architecture and art. An important member of the Greek world in the Archaic period, Crete dipped...
Sabratha
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Sabratha

Sabratha was an ancient port city on the coast of North Africa (in modern-day Libya). The site was originally inhabited by the indigenous Berber Zwagha tribe in the 8th century BCE (according to the 11th-century CE historian al-Bakari) who...
The Economy of Ptolemaic Egypt
Article by Arienne King

The Economy of Ptolemaic Egypt

Ptolemaic Egypt rapidly established itself as an economic powerhouse of the ancient world at the end of the 4th century BCE. The wealth of Egypt was owed in large part to the unrivalled fertility of the Nile, which served as the breadbasket...
Parthia: Rome's Ablest Competitor
Article by Patrick Scott Smith, M. A.

Parthia: Rome's Ablest Competitor

As a superpower in its own right and in competition with Rome, Parthia’s empire - ruling from 247 BCE to 224 CE - stretched between the Mediterranean in the west to India in the east. Not only did the Parthians win battles against Rome...
Early Muslim Conquests (622-656 CE)
Article by Syed Muhammad Khan

Early Muslim Conquests (622-656 CE)

Islam arose as a religious and socio-political force in Arabia in the 7th century CE (610 CE onwards). The Islamic Prophet Muhammad (l. 570-632 CE), despite facing resistance and persecution, amassed a huge following and started building...
Travel in the Ancient Greek World
Article by Mark Cartwright

Travel in the Ancient Greek World

Travel opportunities within the ancient Greek world largely depended on status and profession; nevertheless, a significant proportion of the population could, and did, travel across the Mediterranean to sell their wares, skills, go on religious...
Food & Agriculture in Ancient Greece
Article by Mark Cartwright

Food & Agriculture in Ancient Greece

The prosperity of the majority of Greek city-states was based on agriculture and the ability to produce the necessary surplus which allowed some citizens to pursue other trades and pastimes and to create a quantity of exported goods so that...
Ancient Cyprus: A Travel Guide
Article by Carole Raddato

Ancient Cyprus: A Travel Guide

Lying at the crossroads of the eastern Mediterranean, the island of Cyprus has long been a meeting point for many of the world’s great civilizations. Situated where Europe, Asia and Africa meet, its location shaped its history of bringing...