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Ancient Persian Warfare
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Persian Warfare

The ancient Persian military evolved from the earlier armed forces of the Medes which, in turn, developed from the warrior class of the indigenous people of the Iranian Plateau, the Aryan migrants (including the Persians) who later settled...
Achaemenid Kings List & Commentary
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Achaemenid Kings List & Commentary

The Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE) was the first great Persian political entity in Western and Central Asia which stretched, at its peak, from Asia Minor to the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia through Egypt. It was founded by Cyrus II (the...
The Battle of Gaugamela, 331 BCE
Article by Grant

The Battle of Gaugamela, 331 BCE

After securing the eastern Mediterranean seaboard and Egypt, Alexander the Great pushed east into Mesopotamia with the intention of bringing Darius to battle. After crossing the Euphrates River unopposed, he marched his army eastward along...
Bureaucracy in the Achaemenid Empire: Learning from the Past
Article by Haleh Brooks

Bureaucracy in the Achaemenid Empire: Learning from the Past

In the early days of the Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE), the kings came to realise that, if they were to be able to administer the vast mass of land and the multicultural people who inhabited it, they had to create an organizational...
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Video by Smarthistory, Art History at Khan Academy

Capital of a column from the audience hall of the palace of Darius I, Susa, c. 510 B.C.E.

Capital of a column from the audience hall of the palace of Darius I, Susa, c. 510 B.C.E., Achaemenid, Tell of the Apadana, Susa, Iran (Louvre) Speakers: Dr. Steven Zucker & Dr. Beth Harris
Headless Statue of Darius the Great
Image by Carole Raddato

Headless Statue of Darius the Great

Headless, 2.5-meter tall granite statue of Darius I originally made to be set up in Egypt and found in 1972 in Susa on the west side of the Gate of Darius. Darius the Great is dressed in the Persian robe but in an Egyptian posture. The statue...
Darius I Inscribed Stone Weight
Image by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

Darius I Inscribed Stone Weight

The cuneiform inscription on this polished diorite weight states "I [am] Darius, the great king, the son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenian". This is an abbreviated version of a standard inscription on a series of stone weights of Darius, which...
Relief of Darius I from Persepolis
Image by درفش کاویانی

Relief of Darius I from Persepolis

Relief of Darius I from Persepolis, 522-486 BCE
Court of Darius the Great
Image by Ancient History Magazine / Karwansaray Publishers

Court of Darius the Great

A modern recreation of the court of Darius the Great (r. 522-486 BCE), by Zvonimir Grbasic. Courtesy of Ancient History Magazine / Karwansaray Publishers.
Tomb of Darius I, Naqsh-e Rustam
Image by درفش کاویانی

Tomb of Darius I, Naqsh-e Rustam

Tomb of Darius I, Naqsh-e Rustam, near Persepolis, Iran, c. 522–486 BCE