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Sidon
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Sidon

Sidon is the Greek name (meaning 'fishery’) for the ancient Phoenician port city of Sidonia (also known as Saida) in what is, today, Lebannon (located about 25 miles south of Beirut). Along with the city of Tyre, Sidon was the most...
Mithra
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Mithra

Mithra is the Persian god of the rising sun, contracts, covenants, and friendship. He also oversaw the orderly change of the seasons, maintained cosmic order, and was responsible for bestowing divine grace on kings, legitimizing their rule...
Roxanne
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Roxanne

After Alexander the Great’s victory over King Darius III at the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC, he had to contend with small rebellions that broke out across his empire. In the summer of 328 BC, one such rebellion occurred in the eastern...
Antipater
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Antipater

Antipater (c. 399-319 BCE) was a Macedonian statesman and loyal lieutenant of both Alexander the Great and his father Philip II of Macedon. As a regent in Alexander's absence, Antipater subdued rebellions and mollified uprisings, proving...
Battle of Pydna
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Battle of Pydna

The Battle of Pydna in June 168 BCE was a decisive Roman victory that ended the Third Macedonian War and established Rome as the dominant power in the Mediterranean. The Roman Republic was expanding, enlarging its sphere of influence along...
Lysimachus
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Lysimachus

Lysimachus (c. 361-281 BCE) was one of Alexander the Great’s trusted bodyguards and a member of his Companion Cavalry.  Although he obtained Macedonian citizenship, his father was a Thessalian named Agathocles. After Alexander’s...
Gorgo of Sparta
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Gorgo of Sparta

Gorgo was the queen of the Greek city-state of Sparta, daughter of the king Cleomenes (reigned 520-490 BCE), wife of King Leonidas (reigned 490-480 BCE), and mother of King Pleistarchus (reigned 480-458 BCE). Her birth and death dates are...
Oxus Treasure
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Oxus Treasure

The Oxus Treasure is a collection of 180 artifacts of precious metal, dated to the Achaemenid Empire (c. 550-330 BCE), which were discovered on the north bank of the Oxus River near the town of Takht-i Sangin in Tajikstan between 1876-1880...
Wars of the Diadochi
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Wars of the Diadochi

On June 10, 323 BCE Alexander the Great died in Babylon.  Although historians have debated the exact cause most agree that the empire he built was left without adequate leadership for there was no clear successor or heir. The military...
Mount Athos
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Mount Athos

Mount Athos, located on the Chalkidike peninsula near Thessalonica, Greece, is a holy site which first saw hermit monks living there in the 9th century CE. Regarded as one of the most important monastic sites in the Byzantine Empire, there...