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Nehushtan
Definition by April Downey

Nehushtan

According to the Bible, Nehushtan was a metal serpent mounted on a staff that Moses had made, by God’s command, to cure the Israelites of snake bites while wandering in the desert. The symbol of snakes on a staff or pole is a motif...
Health Care in Ancient Mesopotamia
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Health Care in Ancient Mesopotamia

In ancient Mesopotamia, the gods infused every aspect of daily life and this, of course, extended to health care. The goddess Gula (also known as Ninkarrak and Ninisinna) presided over health and healing aided by her consort Pabilsag (who...
Egyptian Gods - The Complete List
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Egyptian Gods - The Complete List

The gods and goddesses of Ancient Egypt were an integral part of the people's everyday lives. It is not surprising then that there were over 2,000 deities in the Egyptian pantheon. Some of these deities' names are well known: Isis...
Setna I: A Detailed Summary & Commentary
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Setna I: A Detailed Summary & Commentary

The story known as Setna I (also Setna Khaemaus and the Mummies) is a work of ancient Egyptian literature from the Ptolemaic Period (323-30 BCE) written in demotic script. It is part of a cycle of stories known as the Tales of Prince Setna...
Laocoön: The Suffering of a Trojan Priest & Its Afterlife
Article by Cindy Meijer

Laocoön: The Suffering of a Trojan Priest & Its Afterlife

The sculpture group of Laocoön and His Sons, on display in the Vatican since its rediscovery in 1506 CE, depicts the suffering of the Trojan prince and priest Laocoön (brother of Anchises) and his young sons Antiphantes...
A Brief History of Veterinary Medicine
Article by Joshua J. Mark

A Brief History of Veterinary Medicine

The English word 'veterinarian' as defining one who provides medical care to animals, comes from the Latin verb veheri meaning “to draw” (as in "pull") and was first applied to those who cared for “any...
Chichen Itza
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Chichen Itza

Chichen Itza, located at the northern tip of the Yucatán Peninsula of modern Mexico, was a Maya city which was later significantly influenced by the Toltec civilization. Flourishing between c. 750 and 1200 CE, the site is rich in monumental...
Gula
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Gula

Gula (also known as Ninkarrak) is the Babylonian goddess of healing and patroness of doctors, healing arts, and medical practices. She is first attested to in the Ur III Period (2047-1750 BCE). Her name (Gula) means 'Great' and is...
Mesopotamian Science and Technology
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Mesopotamian Science and Technology

Mesopotamian science and technology developed during the Uruk Period (4100-2900 BCE) and Early Dynastic Period (2900-1750 BCE) of the Sumerian culture of southern Mesopotamia. The foundation of future Mesopotamian advances in scientific/technological...
Elephants in Hellenistic History & Art
Article by Branko van Oppen

Elephants in Hellenistic History & Art

Elephants were thought of as fierce and frightful monsters in antiquity, very real though rarely seen until the Hellenistic period. They were deployed on the battlefield to strike terror into the enemy, however, since fear was considered...