Philip II: Did you mean...?

Search

Third Crusade
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Third Crusade

The Third Crusade (1189-1192 CE) was launched to retake Jerusalem after its fall to the Muslim leader Saladin in 1187 CE. The Crusade was led by three European monarchs, hence its other name of ‘the Kings' Crusade’. The three...
Richard I of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Richard I of England

Richard I of England, also known as Richard the Lionheart (Cœur de Lion), reigned as king of England from 1189 to 1199 CE. The son of Henry II of England (r. 1154-1189 CE) and Eleanor of Aquitaine (c. 1122-1204 CE), Richard was known...
Edward III of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Edward III of England

Edward III of England reigned as king from 1327 to 1377 CE. Succeeding his father Edward II of England (r. 1307-1327 CE) following his enforced abdication and then murder, Edward III would take revenge on his father’s...
Plymouth Colony
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Plymouth Colony

The Plymouth Colony (1620-1691 CE) was the first English settlement in the region of modern-day New England in the United States, settled by the religious separatists known as the “pilgrims” who crossed the Atlantic Ocean on the...
Hypaspist
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Hypaspist

The hypaspists were a type of infantry soldier who served as a vital part of the Macedonian armies of both Philip II and his son and heir Alexander III, better known to most as Alexander the Great. They became an invaluable piece of an infantry...
Hypaspist
Article by Mark Passehl

Hypaspist

Hypaspist translitterates the Greek term meaning shield-bearer, or armour-bearer (ὁ ὑπασπιστής). This noun is formed from the verb ὑπασπίζειν - to carry...
Diodorus Siculus: The Battle of Chaeronia
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Diodorus Siculus: The Battle of Chaeronia

In the following excerpt from his Library of History, Book XVI, chapter 14, the historian Diodorus Siculus (1st century BCE) chronicles the famous Battle of Chaeronia of 338 BCE, in which Phillip II of Macedon, his son Alexander and their...
Knights Templar
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Knights Templar

The Knights Templar, established c. 1119 CE and given papal recognition in 1129 CE, was a Catholic medieval military order whose members combined martial prowess with a monastic life for the purpose of defending Christian holy sites and pilgrims...
Hephaestion
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Hephaestion

Hephaestion was a member of Alexander the Great's personal bodyguard and the Macedonian king's closest and lifelong friend and advisor. So much so, Hephaestion's death would bring the young king to tears. From 334 to 323 BCE Alexander...
Cassander
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Cassander

Cassander (c. 355-297 BCE, r. 305-297 BCE) was self-proclaimed king of Macedon during the political turmoil following Alexander's death. Born in Greece as the son of Antipater, the regent of Macedon and Greece in the absence of Alexander...