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The Hellenistic World: The World of Alexander the Great
Article by Joshua J. Mark

The Hellenistic World: The World of Alexander the Great

The Hellenistic World (from the Greek word Hellas for Greece) is the known world after the conquests of Alexander the Great and corresponds roughly with the Hellenistic Period of ancient...
Unam Sanctam: Spiritual Authority & the Medieval Church
Article by Joshua J. Mark

Unam Sanctam: Spiritual Authority & the Medieval Church

The medieval Church developed and retained its power by encouraging the innate human fear of death and the Church’s vision of itself as the only path to salvation from hell. The pagan systems of the past all had some version of judgment...
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Eleanor of Aquitaine

Eleanor of Aquitaine (l. c. 1122-1204 CE) was one of the most impressive and powerful figures of the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 CE) – male or female – whose influence shaped the politics, art, medieval literature, and perception...
Battle of Crécy
Article by Mark Cartwright

Battle of Crécy

The Battle of Crécy on 26 August 1346 CE saw an English army defeat a much larger French force in the first great battle of the Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453 CE). Edward III of England (r. 1327-1377 CE) and his son Edward...
Elizabeth I of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth I reigned as queen of England from 1558 to 1603 CE. She succeeded her elder half-sister Mary I of England (r. 1553-1558 CE), and her 44-year reign was so long and packed with momentous events that the second half of the 16th century...
Wyatt Rebellion
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Wyatt Rebellion

The Wyatt Rebellion of January-February 1554 CE saw Sir Thomas Wyatt the Younger lead a group of several thousand Kent rebels in a march on London with the primary aim of preventing Mary I of England (r. 1553-1558 CE) from marrying Spain’s...
John Hawkins
Definition by Mark Cartwright

John Hawkins

Sir John Hawkins (1532-1595 CE) was an Elizabethan mariner, merchant and naval administrator who has the inglorious (if not wholly accurate) record of being England’s first slave trader. In the 1560s CE Hawkins trafficked slaves...
Hundred Years' War
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Hundred Years' War

The Hundred Years' War (1337-1453 CE) was an intermittent conflict between England and France which ran on for 116 years. The war began principally because King Edward III of England (r. 1327-1377 CE) and Philip VI of France (r...
King John of England
Definition by Mark Cartwright

King John of England

King John of England (aka John Lackland) ruled from 1199 to 1216 CE. The son of Henry II of England (r. 1154-1189 CE) and Eleanor of Aquitaine (c. 1122-1204 CE), John succeeded his elder brother Richard I of England (r. 1189-1199 CE) as king...
Valerian
Definition by Donald L. Wasson

Valerian

Valerian ruled as emperor of the Roman Empire from 253 CE until his capture in 260 CE. In 253 CE an elderly Roman military commander and experienced former senator was proclaimed emperor by his troops - a very common occurrence at the time...