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Hatshepsut
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Hatshepsut

Hatshepsut (1479-1458 BCE) was the first female ruler of ancient Egypt to reign as a male with the full authority of pharaoh. Her name means "Foremost of Noble Women" or "She is First Among Noble Women".  She began...
Second Intermediate Period of Egypt
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Second Intermediate Period of Egypt

The Second Intermediate Period (c. 1782 - c.1570 BCE) is the era following the time of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt (2040-1782 BCE) and preceding the New Kingdom (1570-1069 BCE). As with all historical designations of the eras of Egyptian...
King Egbert of Wessex
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

King Egbert of Wessex

Egbert of Wessex (l. c. 770-839 CE, r. 802-839 CE; also given as Ecgberht, Ecbert) was the most powerful and influential king of Wessex prior to the reign of Alfred the Great (r. 871-899 CE). Egbert came to the throne at a time when the neighboring...
Ancient Egyptian Culture
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Ancient Egyptian Culture

Ancient Egyptian culture flourished between c. 5500 BCE with the rise of technology (as evidenced in the glasswork of faience) and 30 BCE with the death of Cleopatra VII, the last Ptolemaic ruler of Egypt. It is famous today for the great...
Memphis (Ancient Egypt)
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Memphis (Ancient Egypt)

Memphis was one of the oldest and most important cities in ancient Egypt, located at the entrance to the Nile River Valley near the Giza plateau. It served as the capital of ancient Egypt and an important religious cult center. The original...
Old Dongola
Definition by Mark Cartwright

Old Dongola

Old Dongola (aka Dungulah or Dunkula), located in modern Sudan, was the capital of the ancient Nubian kingdom of Dongola (aka Makuria or Makurra) which flourished from the 6th to 14th century CE. A Christian kingdom for at least 750 years...
The Candaces of Meroe
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

The Candaces of Meroe

The Candaces of Meroe were the queens of the Kingdom of Kush who ruled from the city of Meroe c. 284 BCE-c. 314 CE - a number of whom ruled independently c. 170 BCE-c. 314 CE - in what is now Sudan. The title Candace is the Latinized version...
The Westcar Papyrus
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

The Westcar Papyrus

The ancient Egyptians enjoyed storytelling as one of their favorite pastimes. Inscriptions and images, as well as the number of stories produced, give evidence of a long history of the art of the story in Egypt dealing with subjects ranging...
Bronze Age Collapse
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Bronze Age Collapse

The Bronze Age Collapse (also known as Late Bronze Age Collapse) is a modern-day term referring to the decline and fall of major Mediterranean civilizations during the 13th-12th centuries BCE. The precise cause of the Bronze Age Collapse...
Aethelwulf of Wessex
Definition by Joshua J. Mark

Aethelwulf of Wessex

Aethelwulf (r. 839-858 CE) was King of Wessex, a region in modern-day Britain, son and successor to Egbert of Wessex (r. 802-839 CE) who had unified and expanded his kingdom with Aethelwulf's assistance. Aethelwulf fought at the Battle of...